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Principles Of Weed Control
For successful control, one has to consider the following points:
1. Habits of weed plants: A xerophytes weed (E.g. Alhagi camelorum) thriving under dry & arid conditions will die if fields are flooded with water. Similarly weeds which thrive under marsh or ill drained condition of soil can be controlled by improving drainage.
2. Life cycle of the weed: Annuals & biennials can be controlled effectively if the land is cultivated before seedling stage of weeds. Perennials require deep ploughing to dig out rhizones, bulbs, etc. vegetative part by which they propagate.
3. Susceptibilities: Some weeds are susceptible to certain chemicals while others are not. E.g.: Dicots are susceptible to 2, 4-D while monocots are not, hence 2,4-D is used to control broad leaved weeds in monocot crops.
4. Dormancy period: While controlling dormancy weeds, period is to be considered as they have long dormancy period.
5. Resistance to adverse conditions without losing viability: Some weed seeds have hard seed coats which enable them to remain for a long time without losing their viability, hence they should be controlled before seed formation.
6. Methods of reproduction: Weeds propagate either by seeds, vegetative parts or by both. Seeded weeds should be removed or smothered before seed formation. Vegetatively propagated weeds should be exposed to sun heat to dry & die like rhizome, bulbs, solons, etc. by deep ploughing. Frequent cultivation leads to destroy green leaves & thereby exhaust the food reserves & starve the plants may have to be restored too. In weeds propagated by both mechanical & chemical methods may have to be followed.
7. Dispersal of seeds: Weeds can be controlled or kept in check if the ways in which different weed seeds disseminate are known and counter measures are undertaken.
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