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Current Category » Ornamental Horticulture

Package of  Practices for Growing  Carnation

Botanical Name:   Dianthus caryophyllus,

Family:  Caryophyllaceae

Importance:

It is one of the most important winter season flower.  Which is an excellent as a cut flower, highly suitable for bedding, pots, edging, Flowers are single or double with various colours and having a clove like fragrance.

It is grown widely in U.S.A. and Europe.  In India, it is cultivated on limited scale for commercial cut flowers production.  It is widely cultivated as a garden flower in pots or beds.

Soil and Climate:

Carnations do well in well drained soil rich in time and sunny situation.  Carnations are great favorites for pot cultivation.  Deep planting, water logging and mulching with manures are harmful as those may cause stem or collar rot.

Varieties:

1.  Border carnation: Madonna, King Cup.

2.  Perpetual flowering Carnation:Arthur sim, Willam sim, Allwood’s crimson,
Ancient Rose, Canadian pink.

3.  Marguerite or Chabud Carnation:

Aurora, Marie, Nero, Marguerite white, M. yellow.

Propagation:

Carnation is propagated by seed, layering and cutting.

i)  Marguerites or Chabud type is best raised from seed. 
ii)  The border carnation is propagated form layering. (Curring usually do not root easily).
iii)  Perpetual carnation by stem tip cutting.

Seed Rate:

400 to 500 gm/ha.

By Cutting:

Plants are propagated through terminal cutting.  Highest percentage of rooting was observed when cutting were made in the month of Nov.  – Feb. and were treated with 500 ppm NNA for 15 minutes.  Sand is found to be the best rooting media cutting take about 3 weeks to root and after that planting can be done in well prepared field.

Raising of Seedlings and Planting:

Seeds are sown on a raised bed during Sept.-Oct and watered regularly.  Seed will germinated within a week and seedling will become ready for planting within a month of sowing and seedlings are transplanted at the distance of 20*30 cm or 30*45 cm in a bed.

Nutritional Requirements:

25 to 30 tonnes, FYM + 400 kg N +200 kg P2O + 100 kg K2O per hectare.     

Special Cultural Practices:

1.  Pinching (Stoping):

When the plants are about 20-25 cm long pinch about 7.5 cm of growing point just by bending near a node of with the help of shaving blade, as this encourages development of side shoots.  About 3 to 6 shoots are retained for flowering.

In border carnations stopping is not practiced as these produce one stem only.

2.  Deshooting:

Deshooting is also practiced to remove unwanted weak shoots.

3.  Disbudding:

Disbudding is practiced to obtain long stalk and larger bloom.  The axillary or secondary flowers borne on main stem or terminal shoots are disbudded as soon as they are large enough to handle only one apical bud is kept in each stem.

4.  Staking:

When plants start growing it should be provided with bamboo support to avoid the disloging of plants.

Yield:

Flowers are harvested with long stem and pocked in a bunch or bundles of 6 12.  Picking is done 2-3 times a week.  Blooming period is 3-4 and yield per plant is 70 to 100 flowers, 10-12 lakhs of flowers per ha.

Pest and Disease:

Thrips, aphids and mitos: Malathion 2% Wilt   : Copper fungicides’ drenching.

Current Category » Ornamental Horticulture