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Current Category » Introduction of Plant Biotechnology

Brief History of Plant Tissue Culture

It was Gottlieb Haberland (1902) who in the first decade of this century pioneered the field of plant tissue culture. His idea was to achieve continued cell division in explanted tissue grown on nutrient medium. Following the discovery and use of auxins, the work of Gautherel, Nobecourt and White ushered in the second phase of plant tissue culture over 30 years ago. These and other workers determined the nutritional and hormonal requirements of the cultured plant tissues. It was observed that the whole plant could be successfully regenerated from undifferentiated tissues or even single cells in culture.

Papid advances in diverse aspect of plant culture have been made during the last few years and plant tissue culture techniques have been extensively applied to agriculture and industry. 

Condensed Cronology of Important Development in the Plant Tissue Culture:

Year

Worker

Contribution

1902

C.Haberlant

First attempt to culture isolated plant cells in vitro on artificial medium

1922

WJ Robbins and W. Kotte

Culture of isolated roots ( for short periods) ( organ culture)

1934

P R White

Demonstration of indefinite culture of tomato roots ( long period)

1939

R J Gautheret and P Nobecourt

First long term plant tissue culture of callus, involving explants of cambail tissues isolated from carrot.

1939

P R White

Callus culture of tobacco tumor tissues from intersepcific hybird of Nicotina glaucum X N.longsdorffi

1941

J Van Overbeek

Discovery of nutritional value of liquid endosperm of coconut for culture of isolated carrot embryo.

1942

P R White and A C Braun

Experiments on crownn-gall and tumor formation in plants, growth of bacteria free crown-gall tissues.

1948

A Caplan and F C Stewart

Use of coconut milk plus 2, 4-D fro proliferation of cultured carrot and potato tissues

1950

G Morel

Culture of monocot tissues using coconut milk.

1953

W H Muir

Inoculation of callus pieces in liquid medium can give a suspension of single cells amenable tosubculture. Development of technique for culture of single isolated cells.

1953

W Tulecke

Haploid culture from pollen of gymnosperm ( Ginkgo)

1955

C O Miller, F Skeog and others

Discovery of cytokinins. E.g. Kinetin, or potent cell division factor.

1955

E ball

Culture of gymnosperm tissues ( Sequoia)

1957

F Skoog and C O Miller

Hypotheses that shoot and root initiation in cultured callus is regulated by the proportion of auxins and cytokinins in the culture medium.

1960

E C Cocking

Enzymatic isolation and culture of protoplast.

1960

G Morel

Development of shoot apex culture technique.

1964

G Morel

Use of modified shoot apex technique for orchid proportion.

1966

S G Guha and S C Maheshwari

Cultured anthers and pollen and produce haploid embryos.

1974

J P Nitsch

Culture of microspores of Datura and Nicotina, to double the chromosome number and to harvest seed from homozygous diploid plants just within five months.

1978

G Melchers

Production of somatic hybrids from attached to plasmid vectors into naked plant protoplast.

1983

K A Barton , W J Brill and J H Dodds Bengochea

Insertion of foreign genes attached to plasmid vectors into naked plant protoplast.

1983

M D Chilton

Production of transformed tobacco plants following single cell transformation or gene insertion.

Current Category » Introduction of Plant Biotechnology