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Current Category » Breeding of Field and Horticultural Crops

Breeding in Pulses

Pulse includes species belonging to family Leguminaceae which are cultivated for edible seeds those most extensively are gram, pea, black gram, green gram, horse gram, and field beans. They are high in protein content, the pulses provide at major source of proteins in diet of many people in the world. Samples are used as feed for cattle. Gram or chickpea occupies than 40% area planted under pulses in India. Vary little attention is given to production and utilization of soybean as the pulses crop. Soybean has great industrial value as it is rich proteins (40%) and oil ( 20%).


South and Southern Asia is supposed to be center of origin of pigonpea, black gram, green gram, and dolichos bean. While the eastern Mediterranean is the centre of origin for gram soybean is originated from china.

Gram (Cicer aritenium), 2n= 14, 16-84 species.
Pigeon pea (Cajanus Cajan) 2n= 22, 44, 66-2 species. 1) Bicolour 2) Flavus
Black gram (Phaseolus mungo) 2n =22, 24-2, sub species 1) Niger 2) Virdis
Green Gram (Phaseolus aureus) 2n=22, 24- 40 types.
Soya bean (Glycine max) 2n = 40 – 7 species.


Glycine sojo is wild proginator of Glycine max, cultivated soybean. All the pulses have typical paplionceous flower, consisting five sepals, five petals , comprise of one standard , two wings and two keels, ten stamens, nine fused to farm staminal colomn and one free and carpel borne laterally on the ovary. Stamens are ( 9+1) diadelphous conditions. Among different pulse crops, gram, black gram, green gram, lentil, soybean, are self pollinated crops but in pigeon pea cross pollinated up to 25% is recorded hence it is often cross pollinated crop 2 soybeans growth habits- Determine , semi-determined and indeterminate.

Hybridization Techniques:

Flowers are generally emasculated in the evening and pollinated on the next morning. For emasculation flower that will open one or two days latter are selected and rest flowers and bud on the branch are removed the stamens of the selected buds are removed with forceps with gently pushing keels apart. The emasculated flower bud is then bagged. Magnifying glass may be used if needed, Ripe anthers are collected in the following morning and pollination is done by gently pressing the ripe anther against the stigma. The flowers are again bagged after pollination. To ensure selfing the flower need to be bagged as insects, when visiting carry pollens to the stigma and bring about cross-pollination.

Breeding Objectives:

1. High yield with early maturity.
2. Resistant wilt, pod borer, flower drop.
3. Breeding for non shattering
4. Breeding for profuse branching and fruiting.
5. Breeding for better quality.
6. Breeding for seed quality.
7. Breeding for oil quality and quantity.

Methods of Breeding:

Breeding methods used with pulses are those that are normally followed in self pollinated crops.








Gram ( Chickpea)


N-31, N-59, Vikas, Vishal, Vishwas, G-12,




Tur ( Red gram)

N-148, BDN-1, BDN-2.

T-21, ICPL87 (pragati), ICPL 8863.

ICPH-8, (m.s.) pranhat X ICPL-161.

Vishal 1. TA10


Black Gram






Green Gram (Mug)

J-781, Pusa Vaishakhi, Kopergaon, B-M-4.

S-8, Phule M-2.





T-49, T-1, Punjab-1.

PK-472, MACS-13, MACS-58, MACS-124, Gaurav JS-335, MACS-450.



Hybrid Seed Production:

Male sterility controlled by single recessive gene (ms) genetically controlled male sterility.


Msms (Male sterile) X MSMS (Male fertile)

Msms (Male fertile)

1 MsMs (Male fertile ): 2 Msms ( Male fertile) : 1 msms ( Male sterile)

Maintaince of Male Sterile Line:

Msms             X   msms
(Male sterile)       (Male Fertile)

1Msms: 1msms

Reject male fertile: select male sterile

Hybrid Seed Production:

Male and female lines are sown in 1:3 rations. The cross seed of msms X Msms is used ad female line and MsMs is used as male. In female parent during flowering male fertile plants rouged out and seed developed on male sterile parent is hybrid seed.

Female parent (msms X Msms) X male parent (MsMs)

F1 Msms (Hybrid Seed)


I) Soma clonal variation
II) Embryo culture

Research Institutes:

1. International crop research institute for semi arid Tropics (ICRISAT) – Hyderabad- Gram Tur.
2. All India Co-ordinated Project on pulse – Head quarter at Kanpur.
3. All India Co-ordinated Project on Soybean – Head quarter at Indore.

Current Category » Breeding of Field and Horticultural Crops