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Current Category » Principles of Seed Technology

Requirements of Certified Seed Production

1) Source of Seed:
                                                      
Appropriate / proper class of seed need to be obtained from approved source according to stages of seed multiplication. In case of foundation seed, breeder seed with yellow or buff coloured tag is to be used for sowing while for certified seed production, certified foundation seed with white tag is to be used. While purchasing the breeder or foundation seed, following precautions are to be taken.

a) The bags containing breeder seed or foundation seed should intact with lead seals not tampered or removed.
b) Certification tag i.e yellow tag for breeder seed and white tag for foundation seed should be stitched to the bag and intact. It should be signed by seed certification officer / crop breeder.
c) While procuring the seed, period of validation or revalidation noted on the tag be checked. If the validity or revalidation period of the tag is expired, the seed should not be used for seed production. The source of purchased seed should be verified by SCA before sowing.
d) The empty bags and the tags should be preserved properly till the seed is certified. It helps in giving documentary evidence if legal dispute arises. The tags are also required to be produced at the time of field inspections.

Generally seeds of notified varieties are multiplied in four tier system i.e nucleus seed, breeder seed, foundation seed and certified seed.

2) Registration of Seed Plot:

When the seed plot is to be offered for certification, it is necessary to register the said plot for certification with District Seed Certification Officer. For this an application is to be made in prescribed form ( Form A) and is to be submitted to District Seed Certification Officer along with agreement bond on stamp paper of Rs.100/ duly notarised or registered with Taluka magistrate. The registration fee is to be paid in the treasury on challans as per following rates.

Sr.No

Stage

Type

Fees to be Paid

1

Certified

Varieties

Rs.80.00 per acre seed plot area

2

Certified

Hybrids

Rs.160.00 per acre seed plot area

3

Foundation

Varieties Inbred Parental lines

Rs.160.00 per acre seed plot area

4

Form fee

-

Rs.10.00 per form for ( F/S and C/S)

5

Application fee

-

Rs.30.00  per grower for F/S and C/S

6

Late registration fee

-

Rs.50.00 per grower for ( F/S and C/S)

   
The Application form with agreement bond are to be handed to seed certification office along with a copy of challans.

It is necessary to adhere to the last date prescribed for registration of seed plots. In any case, if the seed plot is not registered within 15 days after sowing or last date and late registration date prescribed by director of SCA. It is likely that the seed plot may not be accepted for certification.

3) Land Requirement:

a) The land selected for seed production should be suitable for that crop. It should be medium to deep and well drained light soils, sandy soils or waterlogged soils should not be selected for seed production as such lands affect crop growth and thereby reduce the seed yields.
b) The land selected for seed production should be comparatively free from soil borne diseases, insect pests and noxious weed seeds.
c) As far as possible the land selected for seed production should not have same crop grown in the proceeding season. However, if same crop is grown in the proceeding season, then it should be irrigated three weeks before sowing so that seed of preveious crop that had fallen the soil will start germination. The land should be harrowed for removing seedlings of volunteer plants, weeds, other crop plants.
d) It is desirable to have protective irrigation source.
e) The selected land should meet isolation requirement.

4) Isolation Requirement:

Isolation is the separation of seed field from the fields of
a) Other varieties or hybrids of same crop.
b) Same variety of hybrids which do not conforming to varietal requirements.
c) Other related species which are readily crossable and
d) Fields affected by designated diseases prevent genetic and disease contamination.

When a seed plot is grown in isolation, it ensures that no cross pollination takes place. Plants from the seed plot and plants of same species or closely related species thereby help in maintaining the genetic identity of the seed plot. Isolation of seed plot can be maintained by two ways i.e
a) Time isolation and b) Space isolation. In case of time isolation, sowing of seed plot is adjusted in such a manner that the seed plot does not came to flowering at the same time with the neighbouring crop of same variety or other variety of the same crop or related species. Sowing of the seed plot is usually carried 15 to 21 days before or after emergence of the neighbouring crop. This time isolation helps is preventing the genetic contamination of the seed crop as seed plot comes to flowering either before or after the neighbouring crop completes its flowering time isolation is not allowed in certified seed production.

Space Isolation:

Space isolation is the minimum distance kept between the seed plot and neighbouring plot of same crop which prevents natural cross pollination and physical contamination. During pollination, pollens are carried from one plant to other either through air or insects. The pollens remain viable for some period before they reach stigma of female flower for pollination. The viability period of pollens which varies according to the species depends upon the size and weight of pollens, and climatic conditions viz. air temperature and air humidity. In case of cross pollinated crops, pollens are liberated in air and are carried thought air to some distance before they reach stigma. The distance upto which pollens are carried in viable conditions varies according the species which in turn, varies according to weight of pollens. E. g In case of highly cross – pollinated crops the isolation distance is much higher as the pollens of these species can travel longer distance in viable condition. In case of self pollinated crops as pollination occurs before opening of the flowers, isolation distance is less to prevent physical contamination.

Sr.No

Crop

Mode of Pollination prescribed (mtrs)

Foundation Distance

Certified Distance

1

Rice, Wheat, groundnut, soybean

Self Pollinated

3

3

2

Jowar (Open pollinated varieties), Tur , sunflower

Often cross pollinated

200

100

3

Cotton, Jute

Often cross pollinated

50

30

4

Jowar hybrids

Cross pollinated

300

200

5

Maize a) Inbreeds and single crosses b) Hybrids c) Composites

-

400

-

6

Mustard, Sunflower

-

400

200

7

Bajara ( Hybrid)

-

1000

200

8

Lucerne , Berseem

-

400

100

9

Cole Crops

-

1600

1000

10

Gram

Self Pollinated

10

5

It is necessary to maintain prescribed isolation distance on all sides of the seed crop throught the cultivation of seed crop. The seed producer should visit all areas surrounding the seed plot which lie within the isolation distance and see that no plants belonging to the crop of seed plot of its closely related species comes to flowering. Such plants should be removed before they set flowers.

5) Cultivation Practices and Plants Protection:

Cultivation practise recommended for the crop are required to be adopted timely so as to get good stand of seed crop and thereby higher seed yields. It consists of
a) Good land preparation.
b) Use of optimum seed rate with timely sowing.
c) Application of FYM and fertilizers at recommended doses and as per schedule of split application.
d) Timely weeding and Interculturing.
e) Timely control of pests and diseases.
f) Timely application of irrigations.
g) Watching the seed plots from birds, stray animals.

6) Roughing:

Rouge is an undesirable plant or off type growing in the seed plot. Roughing is the removal of individual plants which differ significantly from the normal type of the variety. The most important object of the seed production is to maintain genetic purity of the variety or hybrids seed plot. For this purpose it is necessary to follow rouging vigorously.

Rouging consists of removal of
a) Off types
b) Volunteer plants
c) Pollen shedders in female (A) lines,
d) Plants of noxious weeds and other crops,
e) Diseased plants affected by seed borne diseases growing in the seed plot and
f) Tassels from plants in the female rows of seed production of single hybrids and double hybrids in maize.

It is necessary to carry rouging vigorously and punctually throughout the crops growth i.e till harvesting. Rouging is to carried in three phases. i.e a) Pre Flowering
During Flowering and c) Post flowering or before harvesting. During pre-flowering period plants which are morphologically distinguishable from true characters of the variety should be removed. Similarly volunteer plants, other crop plants, weed plants should also be checked. During flowering period which lasts for 15 to 30 days rouging should be carried more critically and all off types, volunteer plants, and pollen shedders in M.S lines should be removed before shed pollens. Timely rouging during flowering helps in preventing natural cross pollination and also reduces the proportion of off types. Simultaneously isolation area on sides of seed plot be checked for removing volunteer plants before they flower. Plants affected by seed borne diseases, other crop plants and tall growing weed plats should also be removed. In case of seed plots of both single and double hybrids of maize work of detasseling should be carried in female lines before they shed pollens.

Roguing should be continued during seed development stage and before harvesting for removing visibly distinct off types other crop plants and diseased plants. Post flowering rouging is admissible in seed production of self pollinated crops.

7) Field Inspection:

As per provisions of seed certification, the seed plots offered for certifications are subjected to field inspection by the staff of seed certification agency. The number of field inspections is usually carried without prior intimation to the seed producer. It is the responsibility of the seed producer to follow the instructions given by the field inspector. For this purpose seed producer or his responsible representative remain present on the field during each inspection. During the field inspection, source of seed used with tag isolation planting rouging are checked and counts of off types, shedders etc are taken. A copy of inspection report is handed over to the producer. Seed producer should see that all operations required to maintain prescribed genetic and physical purity of seed plot are carried before each inspection, otherwise carelessness on part of the seed producer may result in rejection of seed plot from certification.

8) Harvesting, Threshing, Drying and Sealing of Raw Seed:

Seed plot should be harvested at proper stage of maturity and only after permission is granted by the field inspector. After harvesting the crop, it should be brought to threshing yard for drying care should be taken to see that there will not be contamination with other varieties in the produce of seed plot. The seed produce be threshed and winnowed for removing major part of inert matter. i. e Stones, sand , dried twigs, leaves, husk etc. The cleaned seed produce should be bagged in the presence of the field inspectors who ill seal the entire bags ad issue threshing certificate. At the time of sealing, field inspector draw 3 kg sample from each lot. In case of F/S and certified cotton seed for F.T. The seed bags should be transported to authorized seed processing plant for processing along with threshing certificate.

It may be noted that the seed will not be accepted for processing at seed processing plant unless it is brought in bags sealed by the field inspector and issued with threshing certificate.

9) Seed Processing:

Seed lot accepted for processing is processed at the seed draws three samples and sends one sample to seed testing laboratory for testing laboratory for testing, one sample kept at his disposal and one sample for concerned seed producer.

10) Bagging, Tagging:

When the seed lot is passed by seed certification agency on the basis of seed testing laboratory report (STL). The processed and treated seed is bagged and tagged with appropriate tags issued by seed certification officer.

11) Release of Seed Lot:

The certified seed lot is released to the seed producer for sale. But foundation seed lot is released after getting FT report.

Rs…………only

Seal
Seed Certification Agency
Maharashtra State
Application for Certified Seed Production Programme
(Use Separate Application for Different Crop/Variety)

1. Full Name:
2. Location:
a. Address:……………….
b. Village Name:…………
c. Post Office:……………
Pin code:………….
d. Taluka:………….
e. District:…………
f. Ref. Phone No:…………
g. Near by S.T Stand:…………..km……..
h. Near by Railway Station ……..km………..

3. Crop Details:
a. Crop Name:……..
b. Variety:………….
c. Hybrid /Improved:…….
d. Male Seed:……..
e. Female Seed:……

4. Seed Source Details :
a. Name of Product:……….
b. Source Seed:…………….
c. R.O Number:……………
d. Lot. Number:……………
e. Other Information:………

5. Load Details:

a. Survey / Gut Number: ………..
b. Local Name:…………..
c. Area Hectare…………….
Acre:……………

 

6. Farmers Name:
( North):…………
( South):…………
( East):………….
( West):………….

7. Seed to be Produced : Found I/ Found II/ Certi I/ Certi II

8. Sowing Date: …………..

9. Name of Agency :…………

10. Fee Details:
a. Registration Fee:………..
b. Inspection Fee:……..
c. Challan No:………..
d. Late Fee:…………..
e. Total:………

Date :…../………                             Application’s Signature

 

For Office Use Only:

Registration No:…………..
District Code : …………..
No of Units:…………..
Taluka Code:………….
Field Inspection: Two inspections I at flowering and II before harvesting.

Harvesting:

1) The seed crop should be taken from seed certification officer for harvesting the seed plot.
2) The crop is harvested by taking care to ensure that there will be no physical contamination with neighbouring crop.

Drying:

The initial moisture content of freshly harvested seed is usually high in between 15 to 25% .It is therefore necessary to dry the seed produce to bring its moisture content to safe level of 12% or less. For this purpose , the harvested material is dried in sun light for 4 to 6 days. During drying , the produce should be turned over frequently so that all portion of the produce is exposed to sun and also it facilitates free air circulation.

Threshing:

After proper drying the seed produce is to be threshed by using bullocks, tractors, or suitable thresher. The thresher should be thoroughly cleaned from inside for removing seed of preveious crop. The speed of the thresher should be adjusted by choosing appropriate size of pulley so as to prevent mechanical damage to the seed.

After threshing, the produce should be winnowed for removing husk, bhusa and other trash material.

In case of groundnut, pods are removed from the plants by twisting with hands or by beating the plants on wooden plank. All dry leaves, twigs and soil pieces etc should be removed. Then the pods are sieved for removing shrivelled and undersized pods.

When the seed produce is properly dried, threshed and cleaned, raw seed is filled in gunny bags and after putting the threshing slip inside the gunny bags, these gunny bags are sealed by seed certification officer and marked the gunny bags with all details of seed information. The sealed seed produce is transported to the seed processing plant for further processing along with threshing certificate, if the produced seed is to be transported to other district processing plant to obtain interdistrict transport certificate from district seed certification officer and submit the same to the seed processing plant, it is subjected to processing which consist of following  steps. All seed processing done under the supervision of Agril Officer of S.C.A.

1. Drying if seed moisture content is more than 12%
2. Precleaning
3. Grading
4. Seed Treatment
5. Weighing, Bagging
6. Tagging and Sealing
7. Release the seed lot

Seed Yield (Q/ha):

1. Rice= 20-25
2. Wheat=20-25
3. Soybean=10-12
4. Groundnut=8-10 Rainfed
Groundnut- 20-25 Irrigated
5. Gram= 15 -20 Irrigated

Current Category » Principles of Seed Technology