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Current Category » Principles of Seed Technology

Certified Seed Production of Hybrid Jowar and Bajara (AXR Line)

Production Technology:

1. Preparatory Tillage:

Ploughing, clod crushing, 2 to 3 harrowing and collection of stubbles.

2. Source of Seed:

Certified / Foundation seed of A line and R line.

3. Seed Rate:

Jowar:

a) Male Parent- 5 kg/ha (R line)
b) Female – 7.5 kg/ha (A line)
     
Bajara:

a) Male Parent: 0.75 kg/ha
b) Female Parent: 1.50 kg/ha.

4. Spacing:

45 cm between rows and 15 cm between plants. Sowing by dibbling 3 to 4 seeds per hill. In case of Bajara 90 cm X 22.5 cm row and plant to plant distance.

5. Seasons and Sowing Period:

Kharif seasons, Sowing should be completed immediately after commencement of monsoon season and should not be delayed beyond 10th July. Delay in sowing of seed plot favours heavy attack by shoot fly which affects crop growth resulting in delay in harvesting and in low seed yields.

Sowing of seed plot should be adjusted in such a manner that the seed crop should not be caught in late rains before harvesting.

6) Planting Ratio:

As the planting of hybrids jowar seed plot involve planting of both male and female parents, it is necessary to sow them in separate lines. This facilitates harvesting of male parent and seed parent separately. 
When sowing of Jawar hybrid seed plot is started, four rows on all borders of the seed plot are sown with seed of male parent. This ensures adequate supply of pollens for pollination. The remaining area of seed plot is sown with male and female parents in alternate and separate lines in the ratio of 4 female lines: 2 male lines. At both ends of every male line 3 to 4 seeds of sannhemp or Dhaincha are dibbled which helps in distinguishing male lines from female lines.

7) Synchronization of Flowering:

The male and female parents of the Jowar hybrid are heterogenic and usually have different flowering period. It is necessary to adjust sowing of male and female parents is such away that both parents come to flowering at the same time i.e Synchronization of flowering. On the basis of experience schedule of staggered sowing of both parents of different hybrid in kharif season is as under.

Sr.No

Hybrid

Kharif Season

1

CSH-1

Sow all the male and female lines at the same time

2

CSH-5

a) Sow all female lines ,b) Sow half of male lines after 3 to 4 days and remaining half after 5 to 7 days.

3

CSH-6

a) Sow all Male lines, b) Sow half of female lines after 5 to 7 days and remaining half after 10 to 14 days.

4

CSH-8

a) Sow all female lines, b) Sow all male lines after 3 to 4 days.

5

CSH-9,CSH-11

a) Sow all female lines; b) Sow all male lines after 4 to 6 days.

Even if staggered sowing of male and female parents is carried, sometimes , both parents do not come to flowering same time due to unfavourable weather. For this, when seed crop is about 30 days old, some plants from male and female rows be randomly examined for floral primordial initiation. In case, one parent has not started floral primordial initiation or has slow in growth and will take more days to flowering. In order to boost up the growth of slow parent, urea is given to that parent either by 50 kg/ha or by giving foliar followed with light irrigation to the slow growing parent if required.

8) Fertilizer and Manures:

a) 25 to 30 C.L of FYM or Compost before last harrowing.

Time of Application

Jawar (Fertilizers (kg/ha)

Bajara Fertilizers ( Kg/ha)

At sowing

N:P:K-40:60:60

N:P:K-30:30:30

50 days after sowing

N:P:K-40:0:0

N:P:K-30:0:0

Total

N:P:K-80:60:60

N:P:K-60:30:30

9) Post Tillage:

a) Thinning 10 to 15 days after sowing. One seedling is retained at each hill.
b) 2 to 3 hoeing and 2 to 3 weedings.
c) Removal of late tillers which will not mature along with main ear heads.

10) Irrigation:

During kharif seasons one or two protective irrigations be given if dry spell prolongs particularly during floral initiation and flowering period. During rabi season, the seed crop be irrigated at an interval of 15 to 20 days.

Roguing:

Roguing should be initiated before seed crop comes in flowering and should be continued every day vigour sally during flowering period. During roguing, volunteer Jawar plants from isolation distance on all sides, pollen shedders in female rows, off types in both male and female lines, plants whose ear heads are affected by grain smut, other crop plants, tall weed plants, should be removed by cutting at ground level before they flower.

Plant Protection:

a) Major pests: Shoot fly
b) Major Disease: Grain smut, grain mould and D.M and ergot in case of hybrid Bajara.  

It any other pests or a disease is noticed, they should be timely controlled by following recommended plant protection schedule.

Harvesting, Threshing and Drying:

The seed plot is harvested only after permission is accorded by seed certification officer. Whenever majority of leaves become yellow, the crop is ready for harvesting. In the presence of seed certification officer male lines are harvested first and threshed separately. Harvesting of female lines is carried thereafter. Ear heads are cut and placed in small heaps in the field for drying for 2 to 3 days. Then the ear heads are brought to threshing yard and spread in thin layers for sun drying for another 4 to 5 days. The ear heads are threshed and clean unprocessed raw seed is filled in gunny bags in the presence of seed certification officer who seals the seed gunny bags. Sealed bags containing seed should be taken to seed processing plant for processing.

Seed Processing:                                        
 
Seed processing of hybrid Jawar consist of following steps:

a) Pre-drying if needed
b) Pre-cleaning and grading
c) Seed treatment
d) Bagging, tagging and sealing.

Seed Yield:

1) Hybrid Jawar- 8 to 15 q/ha depending on season and hybrid.
2) Hybrid Bajara – 6 to 8 q/ha depending on season and hybrid.

Seed Certification Standards: 

1. Field inspections: Minimum 4 1st before flowering IInd , IIIrd – during flowering IV th- prior to or during harvest.

Current Category » Principles of Seed Technology