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Current Category » Production Techniques for Biological Control Agents

Classification of Parasitoids on the Basis of Biological Relationships – on the Basis of Stage of Host Attacked

a) Egg Parasitoid:

The true egg parasitoids are those individuals that deposit their eggs in and whose progeny emerge from the host eggs. Designed as ‘E’ e.g. Trichogramma chilonus, T preteosum, Ooencyrtus sp. a true egg parasitoids of various lepidopterous pests.

b) Egg Larval Parasitoid:


Another category of egg parasitoids, which deposits eggs in the host eggs but development and emergence are not completed until the host larval stage is reached. Designated as EI’ e.g. Braconid, Chelonus annulipes on European corn bore, Chelonus blackburni on PTM and bollworm, Capidosoma koehleri on PTM.

c) Egg Pupal Parasitoids:

If egg parasitoids deposits egg in the host eggs and emerges from a host pupa it would be designated ‘Ep’.

d) Larval Parasitoids:

True larval parasitoids are those parasitoids which deposit egg on the larvae and their progeny complete development and emerge from the host larvae. Designated as ‘L’ e.g. Apanteles spp. On pink bollworm, Bracon brecicornis on spotted boll worms.

e) Larval Pupal Parasitoids:

The parasitoids those deposit their eggs on or nearhost larvae and emerge from host pupae. Designated as LP’ e.g. Pleurotropis epilachnae on Epilachna spp.

f) Pupal Parasitoid:

Parasitoids that deposit their eggs in the host pupae and emerge from the host pupae. Designated as ‘P’ e.g. Brachymeria nephontidis on Earias spp. All chalidae (Hymenoptera) are pupal parasitoids.

g) Adult Parasitoids:


Parasitoids of adults hosts. The parasitoids deposit a larva on its host while in flight and the mature maggot emerges from the dead adults host. Designated as ‘A’ e.g. Blaesoziphae kellyi a parasitoid of locust.

h) Nymphal Parasitoids:

The parasitoids deposit eggs on nymphs and their progeny complete development and emerge from the host numphs. Designated as N’ e.g. Epipyrops fuliginosa on nymphs of Idioscopus clyealis.

i) Nymphal Adult Parasitoids:

The parasitoids deposit their eggs on/in host nymph and emerge from the dead adult host. Designated as ‘NA’ e.g. Epiricania melanoleuca parasitic on Pyrilla perpusilla.

Current Category » Production Techniques for Biological Control Agents