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Types or Forms of Multiple Parasitism

1) Cleptoparasitism:

The phenomenon in which a parasitoid prefentially attacks on a host that are already parasitized by and other species of parasitoid is called Cleptoparasitism e.g. The cleptoparasitic habitat of Eurtoma pini on  European pine shoot moth. E pini females ovipositor only on shoot moth larvae that had been immobilized previously by primary parasitoids.
 Cleptoparasitism is not hyperparasites for it does not parasites the previously occurring parasite species. Instead multiple parasitisms are involved and relationship between the species is competitive with cleptoparasite usually dominating.

2) Autoparasitism or Adelphoparasitism:


The phenomenon in which a species of parasitoid is parasite upon itself is termed adelphoparasitism. In this case parasitoids use their own species as a host to develop some of their progeny. Aphelinid species with this habitat occur in genera Coccophogus e.g. Coccophagus scutellaris (the male of which is an obligate parasite of the female).

Current Category » Production Techniques for Biological Control Agents