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Few other Bases of Classifying the Parasitism

Besides the above bases of classification of parasitoids few other bases of classifying the parasitism are as given below:

1) Phytoparasitism:

The plant parasitizing/developing on other plant e.g. striga on jowar.

a) Zoo parasitism:

The insect as an animal parasitizing on other animal species e.g. mosquito on human beings.

2) Position of feeding:


a) Ectoparasitism:

The parasitic species feeding externally on its host.

b) Endoparasitism:

The parasite punctures the host cuticle and enters and feed inside the host body.

3) Sequence of attacks:


a) Primary parasitism:

Form of parasitism in which the attacking organism established itself in/on the host which is not parasite.

b) Hyperparasitism:

Form of a parasitism in which parasites attack on other parasites.

c) Secondary parasitism:

Form of a parasitism in which parasites are attacking on the host which is already a primary parasite.

d) Tertiary parasitism:

Form of hyper parasitism in which the parasite established itself in/on the secondary parasite.

e) Quaternary parasitism:

Form of hyperparasites in which the parasites establish itself in/on the tertiary parasite.

4) Adoption and necessity:

a) Obligate parasitism:

Parasite is limited to parasitic existence only. Here in reference to nematodes which must develop parasitically and cannot reproduce and complete growth away from the host.

b) Facultative parasitism:

Parasite occasionally adopts itself either to parasitic nature of free life. Here in also reference to nematodes which may either parasites healthy insects or develop in some other way in the environment.

c) Incidental parasitism:

Form of parasitism in which parasite establish itself on host in which it is not ordinarily associated with host.

5) Based on intensity of attack:

a) Simple parasitism:

Form of parasitism resulting from a single attack on hosts.

b) Superparasitism:

Parasitism of a individual host by more larvae of single parasitic species that can nature in the host e.g. Bracon kirkpatiriki.

c) Multiple parasitisms:

It is a parasitism in which a single host is attacked by two or more types of parasites.

6) No. of host species attacked:

a) Monophagous:

Only one host is attacked by a parasite.

b) Oligophagous:

Only two or few more type of host, those are closely related are attacked by parasite.

c) Polyphagous:

Parasite has more than two hosts to be attacked.

7) No. of host individuals essential for attack:


a) Monoxennous:

The form of parasitism in which only one host is necessary to complete the development of parasite.

b)Heteroxenous:

Form of parasitism in which different type of hosts is required for complete development of parasite.

8) Based on number of parasites in/on host:

a) Solitary parasitism:

Form of parasitism parasites in which on single parasite feeds and develop in/on the host.

b) Gregarious parasitism:

The form of parasitism in which number of individuals of one species develop in/on the host.

9) Permanency of attack:


a) Permanent parasitism:

Form of parasitism in which the parasites complete entire active life cycle as a parasite.

b) Periodical parasitism:

Only one stage of a parasite is completed as parasite.

Current Category » Production Techniques for Biological Control Agents