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Principles of Extension Education


A principle is a statement of policy to guide decision and action in a consistent manner (Mathews).
A principle is a universal truth that has been observed and found to be truth and a settled rule of action.

The principles of extension education are given hereunder:

1. Principle of cultural difference:

1. People differ in thinking, living and culture.
2. Extension education methods should be in line with these differences.
3. It is difficult to recognize non-material culture than material culture.
4. The blue print of extension programme for one area may not suit to other areas.
5. Changes will have to be made in the programmes according to changing situations.

2. Principle of cultural change:

1. Culture undergoes change due to extension.
2. Change occurs otherwise also.
3. Extension Workers should gain the confidence of people.
4. Extension workers should organize result demonstration.
5. After increasing production, the Extension workers should concentrate on marketing.
6. Extension workers have to change to meet the cultural changes among the people.

3. Principle of grass-root organization:

1. Extension workers should pay attention to all the groups’ needs and interests.
2. Imposed innovations have no relevance to groups.
3. People will accept the innovations only when they find those useful.

4. Principle of interests and needs:

1. People and extension workers should work together.
2. Co-operation and help of each other needed for social upliftment.

5. Principle of interests and needs:

1. People should voluntarily participate.
2. Work should start from interests and needs of people.
3. Fulfillment of needs create interests.
4. First concentrate on felt needs and then develop felt needs.

6. Principle of participation:

1. Attachment will not develop by offering ready made things.
2. Participation develops leadership and increases confidence.
3. Involving leaders increases people’s participation.

7. Principle of adaptability in the use of teaching methods:

1. People differ in knowledge and understanding.
2. Method should vary accordingly.
3. Use of more than one method is beneficial.
4. If needed new methods must be devised to meet new situations.

8. Principle of leadership:

1. Extension workers should utilize local leadership for increasing speed of work.
2. Identification, training and encouragement of leaders is necessary.

9. Principle trained specialists:

1. Agricultural and other sciences are developing speedily.
2. Maintaining competency in any of these sciences is a continuous process.
3. Without specialist’s support the extension cannot strive.
4. SMS is responsible to solve the extension workers problems.
5. Subjects Matter Specialist (SMS) is a link between research and application of research.
6. SMS should have broad outlook and be well versed.

10. Principle of satisfaction:

1. The extension programme should give satisfaction to the people.
2. People will not participate if they do not get satisfaction.

11. Principle of whole family approach:

1. Extension work should reach all the family members.
2. Neglecting any member may result in rejection of innovations e.g. Hybrid  maize in U.P.

12. Principle of evaluation:

1. Determining the research results in unbiased way is necessary.
2. Intermittent review of progress is necessary.
3. Corrective measures are needed if the direction is found wrong
4. Behavioural changes should be measured.
5. Evaluation helps in improving the quality of work.

13. Principle of applied Science and Democracy:

1. People have freedom to accept or reject the technology.
2. Applied agricultural Science is a two way process.

14. Principle of Learning by doing:

Some more Other Principles:

1. The citizen is the Sovereign (Supreme) in the democracy.
2. Home is the fundamental unit of civilization.
3. Family is the first training group of the human race and
4. Average farm is endowed with great resources and facilities.

Current Category » Introduction to Extention Education