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Current Category » Livestock Production and Management

Anthrax - Animal Disease

Synonyms: Splenic fever, fanshi, kalpuli

It is an acute widespread infectious disease of all warm blooded animals specially cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat.   It is communicable to man i.e. Zoonotic disease. It is soil-borne infection. It usually occurs after major climatic change. The disease is enzootic in India.

Etiology: This disease is caused by bacteria called Bacillus authracis.

Transmission:

  1. It usually spreads through ingestion of contaminated feed and water.

  2. Sometimes, it also occurs by inhalation and biling flies.

Symptoms:

  1. Sudden rise in body temperature (104 - 10S°F)

  2. Loss of appetite i.e. off-feed.

  3. Severe depression or dullness.

  4. Suspended rumination

  5. Increased respiration and heart rate

  6. Bloat or tympany.

  7. Dyspnoea - difficult breathing

  8. Dysentery or diarrhoea,

  9. Bleeding from natural openings like anus, nostrils, vulva etc.

  10. Sudden death in peracute cases.


Diagnosis
:

  1. History of sudden change in climate and sudden death,

  2. Symptom - sudden death & bleeding from natural openings.

  3. Postmortem findings:

    1. Oozing of dark: tarry Coloured poorly clotted blood from natural opening

    2. Enlargement of spleen i.e. Splenomegenly.

  4. Microscopic examination of blood smears.

  5. Isolation and identification of organism.


Treatment
:
Treatment is effective if given in the initial stage of the disease.

  1. Penicillin @ 10000 units/kg body wt. IM.

  2. Oxytetracycline © 5-10 mg/kg body wt. IM/IV.

  3. Antiantrax serum @ 100-200 ml IV may be given if available.

  4. Supportive treatment with antipyretics, antitistammics and fluid thereyp.


Control
:

  1. General measures: Identification and isolation of affected animals.

  2. Movement of animals from infected area to clean area should be stopped.

  3. Deep burial of dead animals.

  4. Destroy contaminated fodder by burning.

  5. Thorough disinfection of cattle shed by using 10%   caustic Soda or formalin.

  6. Never conduct postmortem of the annual suspected lo be died of Anthrax.

  7. Anthrax spore vaccine @ 1 ml subcut every year before onset of monsoon in areas where anthrax outbreaks are common.

Current Category » Livestock Production and Management