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Male Reproductive System

The primary, secondary and accessory sex organs are collectively termed as reproductive system i.e. Primary sex organs - testis. Secondary sex organs - Vasa efferentia epididymis, the vasa deferentia & penis. Accessory sex organs - prostate gland, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands).

The Testis:

Anatomy: Two in numbers suspended vertically within sac known as scrotum, ovoid in shape. Length is 10 - 16 cm & 8 Cm width.

Histology: Each testis composed of several crypts enclosed in serous layer called tunica vaginalis. Each crypt has several numbers of seminiferous tubules. The wall of seminiferous tubules consists of basement membrane & multilayered sperm producing epithelium having two types of cells i.e.
(i) Germ cells -spermatozoa produced
(ii) Sertoli Cells - sperms get matured. The space between seminiferous tubules occupied by interstitial cells (Leydig's cells) produces male hormone.

Epididymis:

Anatomy: is considered in three parts i.e.
(i) Caput (head),
(ii) Corpus (body),
(iii) Cauda (tail).

It arises from efferent ducts testis. Throughout of its length epididymal tube is lined with secretary cells.

Histology:

In caput, tube is lined with ciliated pseudo stratified epithelium, the flagella of which whip in direction of efferent flow.

Physiology:

Spermatozoa produced in testis accumulate & mature during their journey through epididymis which is 30-35 meters in bull.

Transport:

Sperms transported from rete testis to efferent duct by the fluid pressure of testis & by active beating of cilia. It lakes 7-9 days for any sperm to travel from germinal epithelium to cauda

Concentration:

Dilute sperm concentration originated in testis- water absorbed into epithelial cell of epididymis mainly in caput & highly concentrated sperm left in cauda (tail)

Maturation:

In the course of migration of sperm cells get matured as; it result of secretion from epididymal cells.

Storage:

Cauda (tail) is .store depot for sperms where (hey remain viable up to 60 days

Vas deferens:

Anatomy:

It is slender tube with thick cord like wall originating from tail of epididymis ending into urethra. It is paired and is with spermatic arteries, veins, nerves. It passes through the inguinal ring and pelvic cavity.

Histology: It is abundantly supplied with nerves & by voluntary contractions of musculature/ it is involved in ejaculation.

Uretha:

It is common passage way for product of testes, accessory glands & for excretion of urine. It extends through penis to the glands penis.

Penis:

It is male organ of copulation arid composed of erectile tissue attached and held by sigmoid flexure. It has function of ejaculation & excretion of urine.

The accessory sex organs mainly provides bulk of seminal plasma which is rich in carbohydrates, salt of citric acid, proteins, amino acids, enzymes, vitamins which are secretions of accessory glands, i.e. Seminal vesicles - two in number located on either side of ampulla the secretion contains mainly fructose & citric acid contributes to seminal plasma.

Prostage Glands:

Consist two joined parts. It is surrounded by urethral muscles. Secretion is high in mineral content.

Cowper's gland:

Are paired, round - compact of walnut size, located above urethra. Secretion is viscid & mucus like.

Current Category » Livestock Production and Management