Achievement of Plant Breeding
Today crop plants are different from the crop from which they are originated i.e is wild species. This change has been brought about man through plant breeding. The important achievement of plant breeding are :
A) Production of Dwarf and Semi Dwarf Cereal Varieties:
Many dwarf and semi dwarf varieties are developed in crop like wheat and Rice Dr. Borlaug used a apenese variety NORIN-10 as a source of dwarfing gene, in wheat at CIMMYT (Mexico). In 1963 ICAR has introduced some dwarf selection from CMMYT. Variety Kalyansona and Sonalika were selected from these materials. In India majority of the wheat varieties grown are semi dwarf, and are resistant to water lodging, responsive to fertilizer doses etc.
Similarly the development of semi dwarf varieties of Rice has revolutioned rice cultivation. These varieties were developed by introducing the gene Dee-Geo-Woo-Gene. Ex TN. 1 developed at Taiwan and IR-8 at IRRI Philippines, both were introduced in India in 1966.
B) Nobilization of Sugarcane:
The Indian canes were of Saccharum barberi, largely grown in North India. They were hardy but poor in yield and sugar content, while tropical cane of Saccharum oficinarum had thicker stem and higher sugar content but it performed badly in North India due to low winter temperature. C.A Barber and T.S Venkatraman at Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbtore transferred thick stem higher sugar content and other desirable characters from the noble cane to Indian cane is commonly referred as nobilization on of Indian canes.
C) Development of Hybrid and Synthetic:
a) Maize: Canga series of hybrid, Ganga safed-2, African Tall, Manjari, Deccan etc.
b) Sorghum : CSH-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,910,12,14 and 15 R.
c) Bajara: WCC-75, PHB-10, ICTP-8203, Shradha and Saburi.
d) Cotton: H-4, Var.Laxmi, Savitri, NH-44, Jaylaxmi, etc.