Advantages of An Ideal Crop Production
1. There is over all increase in yield of crops mainly due to maintaining physical- chemical properties of soil. Soil fertility is restored by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, encouraging microbial activity (more organic matter) and protecting soil from erosion, salinity and acidity.
2. It helps in controlling insects, pests and soil borne diseases. It also controls weeds. E.g. repeated wheat culture (growing) increases wild oats and phallaris infestation. Similarly growing berseem continuously encourages chicory (kasani) infestation, but an alternate cropping of berseem and wheat helps in controlling kasani as well as oats and phallaris.
3. Prevent or limit periods of peak requirements of irrigation water. Crops requiring high irrigation if followed by light irrigation, this will not affect or deteriorate the soil physical condition.
4. It facilitates even distribution of labour. Following crop make proper utilization of all resources and inputs. Family and farm labour, power, equipment and machines are well employed thought the year.
5. Farmers get a better price for his produce due to higher demand in local market. So there is regular flow of income over year.
6. Inclusion of crops of different feeding zones (root system) and nutrient requirement could maintain the better balance of nutrient in soil. Growing crops of different root depths avoids continuous depletion of nutrients form same depth. E.g. deep rooted crops take nutrients from deeper zone and during that period upper zone get enriched. Similarly, surface feeding roots take nutrients from upper zone when lower zone get enriched. So growing same crop without rotation results in loss of soil productivity utilized the nutrients from entire soil mass and cost of cultivation is reduced.
7. Diversification of crops reduces risk of financial loss due unfavorable conditions. Diversification of crops means variety of crops can be grown for meeting the domestic needs of farmers and livestock, to reduce risk of market fluctuations, mechanism of farming, growing expensive crops. So all variety of crops are grown in rotation for more benefit.
8. It improves soil structure, percolation and reduces changes of creation of hard- pan in sub soil and also reduces soil erosion.
9. Some crop plants are found to produce phytoalexins when they get infected by diseases. Repeated cultivation of such crops results in harmful effects over crop plants and lower crop yield is obtained. E.g. crop- phytolalexins produced by diseased plants.Groundnut -Resvertrol, Soybean- Glyceollins
10. The family needs of feed, food, fuel, fiber, spices, sugar etc. are fulfilled and also fulfill needs of livestock.
11. Advantages of raising short duration crops (catch crop/ vegetables) when long season crops cannot be raised due to some reasons.
Factors to be considered while planning a crop rotation: growing different crop is very beneficial, but sometimes the desired crops cannot be grown because of certain governing factors (soil and climate), irrigation, availability bullock and other powers, market facilities and type of farming.