Agro Climatic Zones Of India In General
Introductions: – The important rational planning for effective land use to promote efficient is well recognized. The ever increasing need for food to support growing population @2.1% (1860 millions) in the country demand a systematic appraisal of our soil and climatic resources to recast effective land use plan. Since the soils and climatic conditions of a region largely determine the cropping pattern and crop yields. Reliable information on agro ecological regions homogeneity in soil site conditions is the basic to maximize agricultural production on sustainable basis. This kind of systematic approach may help the country in planning and optimizing land use and preserving soils, environment.
India exhibits a variety of land scopes and climatic conditions those are reflected in the evolution of different soils and vegetation. These also exists a significant relationship among the soils, land form climate and vegetation. The object of present study is to delianate such regions as uniform as possible introspect of physiographic, climate, length of growing period (LPG) and soils for macro level and land use planning and effective transfer of agro – technology.
Agro Climatic Zones: – Agro climatic zone is a land unit in Irens of mator climate and growing period which is climatmenally suitable for a certain image of crops and cultivars (FAO 1983). An ecological region is characterized by district ecological responses to macro – climatic as expressed in vegetation and reflected fauna and equatic systems. Therefore an agro-ecological region is the land unit on the earth surface covered out of agro – climatic region, which it is super imposed on land form and the kinds of soils and soil conditions those act as modifiers of climate and LGP (Length of growing period).
With in a broad agro climatic region local conditions may result in several agro – ecosystems, each with it’s own environmental conditions. However, similar agro ecosystems may develop on comparable soil, and landscape positions. Thus a small variation in climate may not result in different ecosystems, but a pronounced difference is seen when expressed in vegetation and reflected in soils.
India has been divided into 24 agro – climatic zone by Krishnan and Mukhtar Sing, in 1972 by using "Thornthwait indices".
The planning commission, as a result of mid. term appairasal of planning targets of VII plan (1985 – 90) divided the country into 15 broad agro – climatic zones based on physiographic and climate. The emphasis was given on the development of resources and their optimum utilization in a suitable manner with in the frame work of resource constraints and potentials of each region. (Khanna 1989).
Agro climatic zones of India :- (Planning commission 1989)
Western Himalayan Region
Ladakh, Kashmir, Punjab, Jammu etc.brown soils & silty loam, steep slopes.
Eastern Himalayan Region
Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Darjeeling. Manipur etc. High rainfall and high forest covers heavy soil erosion, Floods.
Lower Gangatic plants Regions
West Bengal Soils mostly alluvial & are prone to floods.
Middle Gangatic plans Region
Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, High rainfall 39% irrigation, cropping intensity 142%
Upper Gangatic Plains Region
North region of U.P. (32 dists) irrigated by canal & tube wells good ground water
Trans Gangatic plains Region
Punjab Haryana Union territory of Delhi, Highest sown area irrigated high
Eastern Plateaus & Hills Region
Chota Nagpur, Garhjat hills, M.P, W. Banghelkhand plateau, Orissa, soils Shallow to medium sloppy, undulating Irrigation tank & tube wells.
Central Plateau & hills Region
Western Plateau & hills Region
Sahyadry, M.S. M.P. Rainfall 904 mm Sown area 65% forest 11% irrigation 12.4%
Southern Plateau & Hills Region
T. Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Typically semi and zone, Dry land Farming 81% Cropping Intensity 11%
East coast plains & hills Region
Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh Orissa, Soils, alluvial, coastal sand, Irrigation
West coast plains & Hills Region
Sourashtra, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, T. Nadu, Variety of cropping Pattern, rainfall & soil types.
Gujarat plains & Hills Region
Gujarat (19 dists) Low rainfall arid zone. Irrigation 32% well and tube wells.
Western Dry Region
Rajasthan (9 dists) Hot. Sandy desert rainfall erratic, high evaporation. Scanty vegetation, femine draughts.
The Island Region
Eastern Andaman, Nikobar, Western Laksh dweep. Typical equatorial, rainfall 3000 mm (9 months) forest zone undulating.