Rainfed Agriculture – agriinfo.in https://agriinfo.in Sun, 14 Apr 2019 13:11:12 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.1.1 What is Drought Resistance? https://agriinfo.in/what-is-drought-resistance-447/ https://agriinfo.in/what-is-drought-resistance-447/#respond Tue, 15 May 2018 13:41:01 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/15/what-is-drought-resistance/ What is Drought Resistance? It is the ability of a plant to maintain favorable water balance and turgidity even exposed to drought conditions there by avoiding stress and its consequences. Stress avoidance due to morphological anatomical characteristics which themselves are the consequences of the physiological processes induced by drought these zerophytic characteristics are quantitative and […]

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What is Drought Resistance?

It is the ability of a plant to maintain favorable water balance and turgidity even exposed to drought conditions there by avoiding stress and its consequences. Stress avoidance due to morphological anatomical characteristics which themselves are the consequences of the physiological processes induced by drought these zerophytic characteristics are quantitative and vary according to environmental conditions.
A favorable water balance under drought conditions can be achieved by transpiration before as soon as stress is experienced. These are called "water savers" or.  
Accelerating water uptake sufficiently so as to replenish the lost water called as "water spenders"

A) The mechanism for conserving water:-

1. Stomatal mechanism:Stomata of different species vary widely in their normal behaviour and range. In some species stomata remain open continuously or remain closed continuously. Many cereals open their stomata only during a short time in the early morning and remain closed during rest of the day. There is a difference in this respect between varieties of the same crop as shown by the example in two varieties of oat one is more resistant to drought open its stomata more rapidly in the early morning when moisture stress is at its minimum and photosynthesis can precede with the least loss of water (stocker 1960).
However mechanism of conserving water based on the closure of stomata will inevitable load to reduce photosynthesis and may lead to drought induced starvation injury (Leavitt, 1972).

2. Increased / Photosynthetic efficiency :- On possibility for overcoming limitations on photosynthesis, imposed bicoastal closure as means for increasing resistance to loss of water by transpiration there by transpiration there by accumulations of CO2 would be at higher rate for a given stomatal opening (Hatch & stack, 1970). A number of imperfect crop plants (maize, sugarcane sorghum prose, fox tail & finger millets) (Hatch et. al. 1987) as well as certain forage species Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactyl on) Sudan grass Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) Rhodes grass (chloris Guyana) (Murata lyama 1963) and certain A triplex sp. fixed most of CO2 into the C4 of molic and aspartic acids so called C4 dicarboxylic acid (C4) pathway.

3. Low rate of cuticular transpiration: – The typical example is the cacturs. Thick cuticle results in low rate of transpiration.
4. Decreasing transpiration by a deposit of lipids layers on the surface of the leaves on exposure to moderate drought e.g. soybean (Levitt 1972).

5. Reduce leaf area: – The principal means of reducing water loss of xenomorphic plants is their ability to reduce their transpiring surface. Apart from the common means of keeping the aerial parts small perhaps the simplest form of this reduction of the transpiring surface is the sealing or of leaves at the time of water stress a characteristic phenomenon exhibited by many grasses. The rolling of leaves has been shown to reduce transpiration by almost 55 percent in semi conditions and by 75 percent in desert xerophytes (Stalfect – 1956).

6. Leaf surface: – Various morphological characteristics of leaves he reduce the transpiration rate and may affect survival of plants drought conditions. Leaves with thick cuticle waxy surface and the presence of spines etc. are common and effective.

7. Stomatal frequency and location: – A smaller number of stomata retard the development of water deficits. In certain species, the stom are located in depression or cavity in the leaves which is feature can further reduce transpiration by limiting the impingement of currents.

8. Effect of awns: – Awned varieties of wheat predominate in the drier at warmer regions and have been found to yield better than awnless one especially under drought conditions though there are exceptions (Gurandhacher 1963). Awns have chloroplasts stomata and so as photosynthesized. It has been found that the contribution of the away to the total dry weight matter of the kernels was 12% of that the entire plant.

B) To Improving water uptake (MC – Donough & Gauch 1959) :-

1. Efficient root system:-
The root systems of drought resistant plants are characterized by wide variety of apparent adaptations. These responded to such predominant soil conditions as the duration of soil dryness and the depth that is normally wet. Plants become adapted to dry conditions mainly by developing an extensive root system rather that structural modification of the roots (shields – 1958). The conceres "extensive root system" includes additional growth of secondary hair roots.

2. High root to top ratio (R/T):-
A high root to top ratio is very effective mean to adoption of plants to dry conditions of the growth rate of the roots considerably exceeds that of the shoots. The transpiring surface is there by reduced while root system of the individual plant obtains it’s water from a large volume of soil (Simonis 1992) has shown that an increased root top ratio may actually result in greater amount of total dry matter of plants grown under dry conditions as compared a similar ones grown with full moisture.

3. Difference in osmotic potential of plants :-
Levitt (1958) has calculated a difference of 0.5% in soil moisture content that includes per manual wilting could supply a plant with enough water to keep it alive for 6 days. This could mean in certain cases the difference between survival and death.

4. Conservation of water spenders to water stress:-
Because of increased water absorption water spenders are characterized by very high rate transpiration. However as soon as the absorption rate becomes insufficient to keep up with water loss the water spenders generally develop some of the characteristics of the water savers (Cevitts – 1972).

C) Mitigating stress:-

1. Mitigating stress:-
Adoptions a drought basis mitigating effects of stress permit the plant to maintain a high internal water potential inspite of drought conditions. They therefore able to maintain cell tartar and growth avoid direct or indirect metabolic injury due to dehydration (Levit 1972).

D) Drought tolerance:-
When plant is actually submitted to low water potential it can show drought tolerance by either mitigating the actual stress induced by the moisture deficiencies or by showing high degree of tolerance to stresses.

1. High degree tolerance; Resistance to dehydration:-
The simplest method of avoiding drought induced damage is by resisting dehydration, preferably tot he extent  .of maintaining turgur and at least by avoiding cell collapse after loss of turgur (Levit 1972) retain their turgur and therefore can continue to grow when exposed to drought stress. When plants are grown in their natural environment their osmotic potentials tend to be characteristic for each ecological group. 

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Type of Rainfall in Dry Areas https://agriinfo.in/type-of-rainfall-in-dry-areas-417/ https://agriinfo.in/type-of-rainfall-in-dry-areas-417/#respond Mon, 07 May 2018 12:15:42 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/07/type-of-rainfall-in-dry-areas/ Untitled Document Type Of Rainfall In Dry Areas 1. First type rainfall: Rainfall receives from south west Monsoon. Rainfall receives up to 60% in the first three months viz. June – July – August – Rontak Jodhpur Jalgaon. 2. Second type rainfall: Rainfall receives from south – West Monsoon (40 to 55%) and supplemented with […]

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Untitled Document

Type Of Rainfall In Dry Areas

1. First type rainfall: Rainfall receives from south west Monsoon. Rainfall receives up to 60% in the first three months viz. June – July – August – Rontak Jodhpur Jalgaon.

2. Second type rainfall: Rainfall receives from south – West Monsoon (40 to 55%) and supplemented with North East Monsoon (40 to 50%) Pune. Wal A Nagar Raichur – Maximum rainfall receives in July & Sept.

3. Third type rainfall: Rainfall receives from North East Monsoon (60%) Solapur Bijapur a Karnataka.

4. Four type rainfall: Rainfall receives uniformly (Well distributed) from Both Monsoon currents, places of rainfall – Chennai. Total rainfall received in 5 to 6 months.

Decennial rainfall: The mean total rainfall received during past 10 years:

Winds coming over land surface from the North – East are dry and cold and man cause of breaks in the monsoon or they tend to decrease the rainful of a tract by diluting the moisture laden masses of the atmosphere. Indian be divided into three zones of the basis of rainfall.

A) Heavy rainfall zone: above 1250 mm.
B) Moa crate rainfall zone: 750 to 1250 mm.
C) We rainfall zone: Less than 750 mm annual rainfall.

The average rainfall of Solapur varies from 500 to 720 mm and had bimodal stribution. The first peak is usually experienced during June and Second during Sept. Rainfall during Sept. is more assured and is in the rage of 150 to 200 mm. Even though Monsoon sets in by the end of June, July and August are characterized by dry spells of varying duration (2 to 8 weeks at stretch) and frequencies 1 to 5. Usually dry speels of more that 4 weeks duration or 3 dry spells of 2 week duration result in failure off Kharif crops. Such occasions are observed twice in fire years. Usually high wind velocity (18 to 20 km / hr)

At Solapur under dry land areas year to year fluctuatins are so much that there is no guarantee of a fixed quantity of rainfall. Generally rainfall starts in late June to early July. There is depression during late July to early August. Again there is good amount of rainfall in last Aug. and Sept. The rainfall totally recedes by mid October. This is the usual pattern of rainfall in draught prone areas. The probability of rainfall is more than half the normal is fairly good. (P = 0.58) during September.

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Different Agronomical Practices for Soil and Water Conservation https://agriinfo.in/different-agronomical-practices-for-soil-and-water-conservation-429/ https://agriinfo.in/different-agronomical-practices-for-soil-and-water-conservation-429/#respond Sun, 08 Apr 2018 02:43:32 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/04/08/different-agronomical-practices-for-soil-and-water-conservation/ Different Agronomical Practices for Soil and Water Conservation Conservation In Rainfed Areas Soil conservation is a preservation technique, in which deterioration of soil and its losses are conserved by using it within its capabilities and applying conservation techniques for protection as well as improvement of soil. In hilly regions. Where land topography has steep slope […]

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Different Agronomical Practices for Soil and Water Conservation

Conservation In Rainfed Areas
Soil conservation is a preservation technique, in which deterioration of soil and its losses are conserved by using it within its capabilities and applying conservation techniques for protection as well as improvement of soil. In hilly regions. Where land topography has steep slope and is subjected to erosion problem the vegetation cannot get established. Lack of the vegetative cover on sloppy soil surface accelerates the erosion and a large amount of soil is transported into the stream through runoff. In addition, the uncovered sloppy land also a cause extensive damage to the cultivable land at foothill through exporsition of sedimentson them.Sediment disposition covers the top fertilesoil layerand thus makes them unsuitable for cultivation.

Under this circumstance it becomes very necessary to treat such areas by adopting appropriate agronomical measures, so that they can be reclothed with negetations. The vegetation helps in reducing the surface runoff and soil cravsion both. The agronomical measures include contouring strip cropping and niluge practices to control they soil erosion. The use of these measures is entirely dependent upon the soil types land shope and rainfall characteristics.

In soil and water conservation programmes, the agronomical practices are counted as second line of defense the first being mechanical or engineering measures which are employed to arrest the soil erosion immediately. The role of agronomic measure is more economical long-lasting and effective. Always it is advisable to used but when its use is either inadequate or not sulpewant to achieve the goal of erosion control then use of mechanical measures to control erosion is recommended.

The agronomical measures are referred by the practices of growing vegetables on mild sloppy lanks to cover them and to control the erosion from there in living vegetation above the soil surface dissipates the crove power of  agents either they are water or wind In case of water erosion it affects by several ways such as by enhancing infiltration rate and relucing together and thereby reducing runoff velocity to scour the soil particles screening the eroded particles to reach them into the channels or reservoirs; by dissipating the kinetic energy of falling raindrops and thus reducing the splash erosion. The effect of vegetation on wind erosion is also significant as it directly makes a hinderance in blowing path and thus deflecting the wind current at some distance away towards down stream side. The wind – strip cropping is a well known agronomical practice comployed for controlling the wind erosion in wind erosion susceptible areas.

The role of agronomical measures in achieve of soil & water conservation, has immense importance, perhaps much more than the others. It can be explained by considering the Universal Soil Loss Equation (A = R K L S C P) in which agronomical practices reflect the factor of crop management (C). The other factors such as R & K are the natural factor; we do not have any control on them. The L S and P factors may have value as I under worst conditions; although these can be reduced maximum up to 0.5 by applying an ideal soil and water conservation measures. The factor ‘C’ which is crop management factor has value as I for worst conditions, but it can be reduced up to 0.02. At this small value of C, the soil loss can be minimized up to one – fifteenth which is about 10.25 times more than the other factors. Looking this important effect of agronomical measures on soil loss, its scope is assumed to be more dominating in soil and water conservation programmes.

1. Contouring
2. Trip Cropping
3. Tillage Practices

These are the important agronomical practices employed for controlling the soil erosion from sloppy areas. Basically these measures create an obstruction in flow path of surface runoff by making the land surfaces rough due to channels ridges etc. formed under them. Each of these measures also have a direct relation with the infiltration rate and thereby presence of moisture in the soil profile. Infiltration rate is an effective factor in reducing the surface runoff and soil loss.

 

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Erosion- Factors Affecting Soil Erosion https://agriinfo.in/erosion-factors-affecting-soil-erosion-419/ https://agriinfo.in/erosion-factors-affecting-soil-erosion-419/#respond Thu, 22 Feb 2018 05:49:21 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/02/22/erosion-factors-affecting-soil-erosion/ Untitled Document Erosion- Factors Affecting Soil Erosion The factors that influence erosion are: 1. The amount and intensity of rainfall and wind velocity. 2. Topography with special reference to slope of land. 3. Physical and chemical properties of soil. 4. Ground cover its nature and extent. Soil erosion is the wearing away detachment and transportation […]

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Erosion- Factors Affecting Soil Erosion

The factors that influence erosion are:

1. The amount and intensity of rainfall and wind velocity.
2. Topography with special reference to slope of land.
3. Physical and chemical properties of soil.
4. Ground cover its nature and extent.

Soil erosion is the wearing away detachment and transportation of soil from one place and its deposition at another place by moving water blowing wind or any other cause.

1. The amount and intensity of rainfall and wind velocity: Rainfall is the most forceful factor causing erosion through splash and excessive run off.

Rain drop erosion is splash, which results from the impact of water drops, directly on soil. Although the impact of rain drops on water in shallow streams may not splash soil, it does cause turbulence, providing a greater sediment carrying capacity. Large drop may increase the sediment carrying capacity of run off as much as 12 times.

If rain falls gently, it will enter the soil where it strikes and some will slowly run off, but if it occurs in torrents, as usually the monsoon rains doe, there is not enough time for the water to soak through the soil and it runs off causing erosion. Run off that causes erosion, therefore, depends upon intensity, duration, amount and frequency of rainfall. It is observed that rains in excess of 5 cm. per day always caused run off whereas those below 1.25 cm. usually do not.

(The results of soil and runoff losses from air dry deep black and later tic soils with 2 p.e., slope under a rainfall simulator with a constant rainfall immensity of 8.75 cm. per hour indicate that soil loss per 2.5 cm. of siuautated  ram) in case of latertic soil is 0.25 tons per hectare. Thus the soil loss in case of deep black soil which is heavier than latertic soil is ten times more.

2. Topography will special reference to slope of lands: Slope accelerates erosion as it increases the velocity of flowing water. Small differences in slope make big difference in damage. According to the laws of hydraulics, a four – time increase in slope doubles the velocity of flowing water. This doubled velocity can increase the erosive power four times and the carrying capacity by 32 times. In one of the experiments in United States of America, it was observed that the loss of soil per hectare due to erosion in a maize plot was 12 tons when the slope was 5 p.c., but it was as high as 44.5 tons under 9 p.c., slope.

3. Physical and chemical properties of soil: Some soils erode more readily than other under the same conditions. The crodibility of the soil is influenced by its texture, structure, and organic matter, nature of day and the amount and kind of salts present. There is less erosion in sandy soil because water is absorbed readily due to high permeability. More organic manure in the soil improves granular structure and water holding capacity. As organic matter decreases, the crodibility of soil increases. Fine textured and alkaline soils are more crodible.

In general, soil detachability increases as the size of the particle increases but soil transportability increases with the decrease in particle size. Clay particles are more difficult to detach than sand, but are easily transported on a level land and much more rapidly on slopes.

4. Ground cover, its nature and extent: The presence of vegetation ground cover retards erosion. Forests and grasses are more effective in providing cover than cultivated crops. Vegetation intercepts the erosive beating action of falling raindrops retards the amount and velocity of surface fun off, permits more water flow into the soil and creates more storage capacity in the soil. It is the lack of vegetation that creates erosion permitting condition.

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Significant Gains From Watershed Development Programme https://agriinfo.in/significant-gains-from-watershed-development-programme-472/ https://agriinfo.in/significant-gains-from-watershed-development-programme-472/#respond Tue, 06 Feb 2018 09:51:56 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/02/06/significant-gains-from-watershed-development-programme/ Significant Gains From Watershed Development Programme 1. Soil and moisture conservation: Soil and moisture conservation is the basic need in rained agriculture. Top soil is the most fertile part of the soil profile. This layer is lost due to erosion causing decrease in yield. Agronomic and mechanical measures for soil and moisture conservation are adopted […]

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Significant Gains From Watershed Development Programme

1. Soil and moisture conservation:
Soil and moisture conservation is the basic need in rained agriculture. Top soil is the most fertile part of the soil profile. This layer is lost due to erosion causing decrease in yield. Agronomic and mechanical measures for soil and moisture conservation are adopted in the watershed such as contour farming, strip cropping, mixed cropping, inter – cropping, contour / graded bunding, vegetative barriers etc.

2.  Increase in water storage:
Due to construction of surface water storage structures like minor irrigation tanks, percolation tanks, nala bunds, farm ponds etc. the excess runoff water is collected in these storage structures which in turn is used either for supplement irrigation for field crops, horticultural crops or for drinking water to animals. Thus, additional area can be brought under irrigation.

3. Increase in number of wells:
Due to considerable improvement in ground water recharge, the numbers of dugout wells or tube wells are increased. The farmer can apply protective irrigation to various field crops whenever necessary. Thus the area under well irrigation is increased.

4. Increase in cropping intensity:
Due to increase in water resources and adoption of appropriate crop management practices, and area under double cropping is increased, which results in increasing cropping intensity.

5. Increase in fertilizer use:
Due to increase in water potential and moisture conservation measures, the fertilizer use by the farmers is increased.

6. Improvement in crop production and productivity:
Adoption of vegetative and mechanical conservator measures, results in considerable reduction in soil, water and nutrient losses from the watershed area. Further adoption of improved crop management practices results in appreciable increase in crop productivity and total crop production from these areas.

7. Animal and milk production:
Appropriate management of marginal lands with productive grasses and pastures, the total forage resources are increased which reflects in increasing animal component resulting increase in meat and milk production.

8. Increase in afforestation and alternate land use:
For producing fuel, fodder and timber, alternate land use programme is implemented in watersheds. Dryland horticultural species in addition to fuel and fodder tree species have shown promise in the watersheds.

9. Employment generation and increase in per capita income:
Due to optimization of available resources, there is increase in employment generation to farm families throughout the year. Due to overall increase in production and productivity in the entire watershed, there is considerable increase in per capita income.

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Time and Length of Growing season – Tropical Regions https://agriinfo.in/time-and-length-of-growing-season-tropical-regions-457/ https://agriinfo.in/time-and-length-of-growing-season-tropical-regions-457/#respond Tue, 30 Jan 2018 01:29:57 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/01/30/time-and-length-of-growing-season-tropical-regions/ Time and Length of Growing season – Tropical Regions In tropical regions where low temperature does not limit growth, the time and length of the growing season for sorghum is determined by the seasonal precipitation pattern. Kassam et.al. (1978) and Kassam (1979) used precipitation data and computations of potential Evapotranspiration (PET) (Thorntwaite, 1948) to determine […]

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Time and Length of Growing season – Tropical Regions

In tropical regions where low temperature does not limit growth, the time and length of the growing season for sorghum is determined by the seasonal precipitation pattern. Kassam et.al. (1978) and Kassam (1979) used precipitation data and computations of potential Evapotranspiration (PET) (Thorntwaite, 1948) to determine the growing seasons for crops in tropical Africa. This procedure is illustrated in Figure 1 and was used to determine the time and length of growing season for sorghum.

The first day (a) wren the normal precipitation becomes equal to or greater than half the normal PET is the beginning of the growing season and earliest planting time. The last day of the growing season (c) is the day when the normal daily precipitation becomes less than half normal PET plus time required to evaporate 100 mm of stored moisture from the period when precipitation exceeds PET.

The sorghum growing seasons for different tropical areas in eastern end western Mexico are shown is Table 1. The growing season at Villahermosa which receives 1902 mm. of rainfall is 333 days. At Apatzingan (716 mm rainfall) the season is only 125 days. A study by Kassm (1979) shows that a creed relationship exists between the amount of annual rainfall and the length as growing season in Africa.

Table: Growing season as related to precipitation at two locations to tropical Mexico.


Location

Rainfall

Growing season

Villahermosa (170 59 N 920 55 W)

1902

15-Apr

Apatzingan 190 05 N 1020 15 W)

716

4 Nov.

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Soil and Water Conservation Methods https://agriinfo.in/soil-and-water-conservation-methods-423/ https://agriinfo.in/soil-and-water-conservation-methods-423/#respond Sat, 20 Jan 2018 14:53:42 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/01/20/soil-and-water-conservation-methods/ Soil And Water Conservation Methods The loss of soil and water under natural vegetation is the lowest. But lands must be cultivated and grown with crops to produce food. This can be done without much harm to the soil if proper soil and water conservation methods are followed. Such methods aim at encouraging water to […]

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Soil And Water Conservation Methods

The loss of soil and water under natural vegetation is the lowest. But lands must be cultivated and grown with crops to produce food. This can be done without much harm to the soil if proper soil and water conservation methods are followed. Such methods aim at encouraging water to infiltrate into the soil, reduce its velocity and check run off losses.

The most common soil and water conservation methods are

A) Management practice viz.

a) Strip cropping,
b) Mulching,
c) Crop rotation,
d) Contour cultivation,
e) Planting of grasses for stabilizing bunds,
f) Planting of trees and a forestation,
g) Cashew nut plantation, and
B) Mechanical practices such as
a) Bunding,
b) Terracing,
c) Gully or nala control,
d) Control of stream and river banks.

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Cropping Patterns https://agriinfo.in/cropping-patterns-473/ https://agriinfo.in/cropping-patterns-473/#respond Sun, 07 Jan 2018 12:59:22 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/01/07/cropping-patterns/ Cropping Patterns Cropping Pattern: The selection of crops and their varieties is to be made depending on the soil and rain fail situation in the rained areas. The photo insensitive crops and varieties with shorter duration should be chosen to escape drought of different intensities. There are wide variations, location to location in water availability […]

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Cropping Patterns

Cropping Pattern: The selection of crops and their varieties is to be made depending on the soil and rain fail situation in the rained areas. The photo insensitive crops and varieties with shorter duration should be chosen to escape drought of different intensities. There are wide variations, location to location in water availability periods in dryland areas. Thus depending upon water availability following are the different crops and cropping patterns to suit different climatic situations.

For rained areas:

Monoculture

 Scarcity zone

Pearl millet, red gram, green gram, black

 

 

gram, Horse gram, groundnut 

 

 

Rabi : Jowar Safflower

 

 Assured rainfall

Cotton, sorghum, red gram, black gram,

 

 

green gram, soybean, sunflower

 Double cropping

 

 

 Scarcity zone

 

 

Kharif crops Mung /
Urid Mung / Urid
Sunflower
Bajra
Bajra

 Rabi crops Safflower
 Jowar
 Gram
Gram
Safflower

 

Assured rainfall zone

 

 

Paddy
Soybean
Mung/Urid
Mung/Urid
Sunflower

Gram
Safflower
Jowar
Safflower
Gram

 

Irrigated areas

 

 

Jowar
Jowar
Maize
Grunt
Grunt

Wheat
Gram
Wheat
Jowar
Sunflower

Stable intercropping systems for rained areas:
Scarcity zone    Bajra + Tur in 2: 1 row proportion
Assured rain     Sorghum + Mung / Urid in 2: 1 row proportion fall zone.
Cotton + Mung / Urid in 1: 1 row proportion
Cotton + Tur in 8: 2 row proportion
Sorghum + Tur in 2: 1 row proportion.
Tur + Mung / Urid in 1: 3 row proportion.

Grassland or pasture management:
Most of the marginal lands are not able to sustain arable crops particularly during the drought years. Such lands can be developed into dependable pastures by following soil and water conservation measures like contour trenches and contour furrows. Controlled grazing may also help in building the forage resource.

At times, native pastures are stocked with low productive and less palatable species. These pastures lack legume component, thus, making the pasture lands nutritionally deficient. Artificial renovation of such pastures is likely to provide forage of good quality as well as sufficient quantity. In rained areas, different legumes from the genera Dolichos, Leucaena, Clitoria, Cassia and Stylosanthes have been found to do well with or without grasses like Cenchrus ciliaris. But Stylosanthes has been found to be excellent in all situations with regard to persistence, nutritive value and palatability. Different grasses from the genera Dichanthium, Cenchrus, Lasiurus, Chloris, Urochloa, Panicum, and Pennisetum etc. have been observed doing well. Cenchrus ciliaris has been found to be good in most of the situations.
The pastures are easily established if they are seeded at the beginning of rainy season. Seeds of Cenchrus ciliaris @ 1.0 Kg. Stylosanthes hamata @ 4.0 Kg and Stylosanthes scabra @ 1.0 Kg per hectare may be used as seed moistures. The seed moisture may be broadcasted on a drizzling day. After that, light raking of the soil may improve germination chances considerably.

Research investigations have revealed that application of 20 – 25 Kg N increases dry matter yield of grass species considerably. Similarly, 30 – 40 Kg. of P205 gives good response of legume component. For the establishment of pasture as well as for getting increased forage production the access of livestock to pastures should be controlled so that grazing pressure could be minimized.

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Crop mixture And Its Advantages https://agriinfo.in/crop-mixture-and-its-advantages-479/ https://agriinfo.in/crop-mixture-and-its-advantages-479/#respond Sat, 06 Jan 2018 13:52:29 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/01/06/crop-mixture-and-its-advantages/ Crop mixture And Its Advantages  It is similar to inter cropping the difference that crops are either broadcasted seeds are mixed and sown or grown as mixture with in a row. Types: 1. Cereals – legumes 2. Cereals – oilseeds 3. Fiber crops – oilseeds 4. Fiber crops – cereals A) For Vidarbha – Khandesh […]

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Crop mixture And Its Advantages

 It is similar to inter cropping the difference that crops are either broadcasted seeds are mixed and sown or grown as mixture with in a row.

Types:
1. Cereals – legumes
2. Cereals – oilseeds
3. Fiber crops – oilseeds
4. Fiber crops – cereals
A) For Vidarbha – Khandesh tract
Jowar – black gram
Bajra – kidney beam / Green gram
Cotton 10 – 15 rows – Red gram 2 lines.
Deccan hemp – Sesamum – seeds mixed
B) For Deccan Dists:
Bajra – 5 – 6 rows – Red gram of row
Bajra – 2 – 1 rows – one row of tur.
R. Jowar – 8 rows – Safflower 4 rows
Sunflower – 2 rows – one row of tur.

Advantages:
1. To utilize available space and nutrients to the maximum extent.
2. To secure daily requirements like pulses and oilseeds.
3. To safeguard against hazards of weather, diseases and pests.
4. To provide balanced cattle feed.
5. To avail distribution of labour through out the year.
6. To get handy installments of cash returns.

Limitation: In Rabi this system is uneconomical as rabi crops are grown on recording moisture.
The growth rhythmus and duration of life cycle of the mixture is different. In this main crop get harvested earlier than mixed crop by which the mix crop produces high yield with benefit of September showers. Bajra + red gram where the duration of life cycle of bajara is less than that of red gram.

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Broad Objectives of watershed Development https://agriinfo.in/broad-objectives-of-watershed-development-470/ https://agriinfo.in/broad-objectives-of-watershed-development-470/#respond Fri, 29 Dec 2017 15:15:27 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2017/12/29/broad-objectives-of-watershed-development/ Broad Objectives of watershed Development In general, the watershed development fulfills the following objectives. 1.To bring about increased productivity. 2.To make yields less subject to the effect of erratic rains. 3.To improve resource conservation (soil & water) and land use. 4.To create additional employment potential for the small / marginal farmers and agricultural labourers. Principles […]

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Broad Objectives of watershed Development

In general, the watershed development fulfills the following objectives.

1.To bring about increased productivity.
2.To make yields less subject to the effect of erratic rains.
3.To improve resource conservation (soil & water) and land use.
4.To create additional employment potential for the small / marginal farmers and agricultural labourers.

Principles or objectives of watershed management:

1. Utilizing the land according to its capability.
2. Putting adequate vegetal cover on the soil during the rainy season.
3. Conserving as much water as possible at the place where it falls. i.e. In situ conservation of rain water.
4. Draining out excess water with a safe velocity and diverting it to storage ponds avoiding situation hazards and store it for further sue for supplemental irrigation during stress periods.
5. Avoiding gully formation and putting checks at suitable intervals to control soil erosion and recharge ground water.
6. Maximizing productivity per unit area, per unit time and per unit of water.
7. Increasing cropping intensity and land equivalent ratio through intercropping and sequence cropping.
8. Safe utilization of marginal lands through alternate land use system such as horticulture, Agro forestry, silvipasture etc.
9. Ensuring sustainability of the eco – system benefiting the man – animal – animal – plant – land, water complex in the water complex in the watershed.
10 Maximum the combined income from the inter related and dynamic crop – livestock – tree – labour complex over years.
11. Stabilizing total income and cut down risks during aberrant water situation.
12. Improving infrastructural facilities with regards to storage, transportation and marketing.
13. Improving the socio – economic status of the farmers.

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