In India livestock form an integral part of Agriculture. In fact the country’s national economy is closely knit with Agriculture and livestock. It is therefore, a matter of great importance that the livestock are maintained in good health and provided proper management "The productive potentialities of livestock are controlled by three principal factors namely i) genetic make up ii) Nutrition iii) Environment including the climatic conditions
What is management?
Management is the art and science of combining ideas, facilities, processes, materials and labors to produce and market a worthwhile product for service successfully.
A manager is an organizer and a converter he converts resources in to product. This is just as true for our dairy farm as for our biggest industries; he converts labor soil fertility hay silage and other inputs in to milk. These transformations do not occur by happenstance. They are the results of a purposeful and premeditated force called management.
Function of management:
A manager must perform five major functions. He must plan, organize, coordinate, direct and control. The manager’s role is that of a ‘decision maker’ i.e. who must decide what to do., how to do it, when to do it.
For successful performance of management process, the manager must
Observe: Gather information about all resources technologies, alternative market outlet Sources of capital credit needed and items affecting successful operation
Establish goals: Clearly set and the objectives to be achieved.
Identify problems: Find the obstacles or stumbling blocks which. Hinder the progress to goals.
Analyze: Compare alternative methods of reaching goals, in terms of capital labor and other assets.
Decide: Choose a plan of action and set out clear-cut procedure.
Act: Put chosen plan into operation.
Be responsible: Assume responsibilities for the consequences, of the actions taken.
Evaluate: Measure results and compare with goals.
Control: Keep a careful check on production level.
Adjust: Keep the operating system flexible to take the advantage of new development tools and management
Tools and management:
Some of the tools which are helpful in acquiring accurate information about dairy business and in guiding management decision are as follows:
Farm records: No business can be operated successfully without a good system of accounting for a dairy farm. The account should include the following
Complete inventories: At the beginning and end of the year including a summary of all assets, debts and net worth.
Production records (including main animal products – and their byproducts.
Current expenditure and receipts-including quantity sold)
Annual production and financial summary.
Analysis of year’s records to determine strong and weak points.