Antidotes in Case of Pesticide Poisoning
A. General Antidotes:
1. Removal of Poison: Remove poisons by including vomiting.
2. The “Universal Antidote”: A mixture of 7 g of activated charcoal, 3.5 g of magnesium oxide and 3.5 g of tannic acid in half a glass of warm water may be used to absorb or neutralize poisons. This mixture is useful in poisoning by acids, liquid glycosides and heavy metals. Except in cases of poisoning by corrosive substances it should be followed by gastric lavage.
3. Gastric Lavage (Removal of Stomach Contents): Lavage is the most important method for removing poisons from the stomach.
4. Demulcents (Substances having Soothing Effect): After the stomach has been emptied as completely as possible, give one of the following:
i. Raw egg white mixed with water.
ii. Gelatine 9 to 18 g dissolved in 570 ml of warm water.
vi. Mashed Potato
vii. Flour and water
B. Specific Antidotes for Some Pesticides:
The following emergency treatments are prescribed for poisoning by some specific pesticides.
a) BHC, Chlordane, DDT, Toxaphene, Methoxychlor and other Organochlorines:
If swallowed, give 28 g of magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts) in a glass of water, followed by hot tea or coffee. Inject 10 ml of 10% calcium gluconate intravenously. It necessary, inject Phenobarbital 0.1 g intravenously. Feed the patient with rich carbohydrate and calcium diet to prevent liver damage.
b) Organophosphorus Compounds (Parathion, HETP, and TEPP etc):
If the patient has blurred vision, abdominal cramps and tightness in the chest, give two tablets of atropine (each 1/100 g). Administer artificial respiration in case of respiratory failure. Do not give morphine.
c) Zinc Phosphide:
If the patient has taken the poison within 24 hours, proceed as follows: (1) Stir one teaspoonful of mustard powder into a glass of warm water and make the patient drink it: (2) After vomiting from treatment (1) has stopped, give the patient 5 g of potassium permanganate dissolved in a glass of water: (3) Ten minutes after the above treatment (2) have the patient drink a solution made of ½ teaspoonful of copper sulphate in a glass of water; and (4) Fifteen minutes after treatment (3) give the patient a solution made by dissolving one tablespoonful of magnesium sulphate (Epsomsalts) in a glass of water. If the poison has been taken earlier than 24 hours, omit treatment (1) above and give the others in order.