Biological And Chemical Properties Of Soil
Biological properties of soil:
Soil is not a dead mass but an abode of millions of organisms, which includes crabs, snails, earthworms, mites, millipedes, centipedes. These feed on plant residues burrow the soil and help in aeration and percolation of water.
The soil organisms are of two types: Microflora and Micro fauna, Bactro Actinomycetes, Fungi and Algae relate to former and Protozoa, Nematodes relate to some of these have symbiosis with other organisms. They act on plant and animal residue and release the food material which in turn used by plants.
Chemical properties of soil:
These are pH of soil, cation exchange capacity; buffering capacity and soil colloids. These are having more significance in the crop production.
PH of the soil decides the soil reaction as acidic, neutral and alkaline. The crops in the tolerance to the soil reaction. PH also influences the availability of nutrients. These with less than 7 are acidic, 7 neutral and above 7 alkaline. Acidic and alkaline soils need reclaim for crop production by addition of soil amendments.