Biomolecules – Definition, Types, Structure, Properties and Its applications

Biomolecules – Definition, Types, Structure, Properties and Its applications

Definition of Biomolecule:

An organic compound normally present as an essential component of living organism.
Characteristics of Biomolecules:

1) Most of them are organic compounds.
2) They have specific shapes and dimensions.
3) Functional group determines their chemical properties.
4) Many of them arc asymmetric.
5) Macromolecules are large molecules and are constructed from small building block molecules.
6) Building block molecules have simple structure.
7) Biomolecules first gorse by chemical evolution.

Important Biomolecules of life:

1) Water: Being the universal solvent and major constituents (60%) of any living body without which life is impossible. It acts as a media for the physiological and biochemical reactions in the body itself. Maintain the body in the required turgid condition.

2) Carbohydrates: It is very important for source of energy for any physical body function.

3) Proteins: These are very important from body maintenance point of view,helps in tissue, cell formation.

4) Lipids: These are very important from energy source as well as human nutrition point of view.

5) Nucleic Acids: Nucleic acids are very important as DNA carries the hereditary information and RNA helps in protein formation for the body.
6) Enzymes: Enzymes are simple or combined proteins acting as specific catalysts and activates the various biochemical and metabolic processes within the body.

Table: Fundamental Biological Molecules (Biomolecules):

Sr. No.

Small Molecule

Atomic Constituents

Derived Macro – Molecule


Amino Acid

C, H, O, N (S)




C, H, O

Starch, Glycogen


Fatty Acids

C, H, O

Fats, Oils


Purines and Pyrimidine

C, H, O, N

Nucleic Acids



C, H, O, N, P

Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)

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