Breeding of Field and Horticultural Crops agriculture information – agriinfo.in https://agriinfo.in Sun, 14 Apr 2019 13:11:12 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.1.1 Introduction to Ideotype Breeding https://agriinfo.in/introduction-to-ideotype-breeding-2089/ https://agriinfo.in/introduction-to-ideotype-breeding-2089/#respond Sat, 12 May 2018 11:10:41 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/12/introduction-to-ideotype-breeding/ Introduction to Ideotype Breeding In broad sense an Ideotype model which is expected to perform or behave in a predictable manner within a defined environment. More specifically, crop Ideotype is a plant model which is expected to yield greater quantity of grains, fibre, oil or other useful product when developed as a cultivar. The term […]

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Introduction to Ideotype Breeding

In broad sense an Ideotype model which is expected to perform or behave in a predictable manner within a defined environment. More specifically, crop Ideotype is a plant model which is expected to yield greater quantity of grains, fibre, oil or other useful product when developed as a cultivar. The term Ideotype was first proposed by Donald in 1968 working on wheat. The main points about Ideotype are given below:

1. Crop Ideotype refers to model plants or ideas plant type for a specific environment.
2. Ideotype differs from Ideotype. The former refers to a combination of various plant characters which enhance the yield of economic produce, whereas the latter refers to the morphological features of the chromosomes of a particular plant species.
3. Donald included only morphological characters to define an Ideotype of wheat, subsequently, physiological and biochemical traits were also included for broadening the concept of crop Ideotype.
4. Ideal plants or model plants are expected to give higher yield than old cultivars in a defined environment.
5. Ideotype is a moving goal which changes according to climatic situation, type of cultivation, national polley, market requirement etc. In other words, Ideotype have to be redesigned depending upon above factors. Thus, development of crop Ideotype is a continuous process.
6. Ideal plant type or model plant type also varies from species. Moreover, this is a difficult and slow method of cultivar development because various morphological, physiological and biochemical characters have to be combined a single genotype from different sources.

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Agriculture Universities in India https://agriinfo.in/agriculture-universities-in-india-2068/ https://agriinfo.in/agriculture-universities-in-india-2068/#respond Tue, 08 May 2018 02:15:11 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/08/agriculture-universities-in-india/ Agriculture Universities in India University Location Year Established Remark Govind Ballabh Pant University Agriculture and Technology ( GBPAU and T) Patnagar` 1960 First agriculture university, single campus. Rajasthan Agriculture University from Agriculture University , Udipur (RAU) Bikaner ( Rajasthan) 1986 3 Campuses Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (QUAT) Bhubaneswar ( Orissa) 1962 Single Campus […]

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Agriculture Universities in India

University

Location

Year Established

Remark

Govind Ballabh Pant University Agriculture and Technology ( GBPAU and T)

Patnagar`

1960

First agriculture university, single campus.

Rajasthan Agriculture University from Agriculture University , Udipur (RAU)

Bikaner ( Rajasthan)

1986

3 Campuses

Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (QUAT)

Bhubaneswar ( Orissa)

1962

Single Campus

Punjab Agriculture University

Ludhiana

1963

Single Campus

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology

Jammu ( J and K)

 

I Campus

Y.S . Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry ( YSPUH and F)

Solan (H.P)

1985

I Campus

Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya

Krishi Nagar, Raipur (Chhattisgarh)

1987

I Campus

University of Agricultural Sciences ( UAS)

Dharwad

1987

 

Central Agriculture University (CAU)

Imphal

 

 

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Science University ( TNV and ASU)

Chennai ( T.N)

 

 

Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya ( JNKV)

Jabalpur (M.P)

1964

9 Campuses

Acharya  N. G. Ranga Agricultural University ( APAU)

Rajendranagr, Hyderabad

1965

6 Campuses

University of Agricultural Sciences ( UAS)

Bangalore (Karnataka)

1965

4 Campuses

Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth (MPKV)

Rahuri ( Maharashtra)

1965

4 Campuses

Dr.Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth (PKV)

Akola( Maharashtra)

1969

7 Campuses

Assam Agriculture University

Jorhar ( Assam)

1969

Single Campuses

Haryana Agriculture University

Hissar (Haryana)

1970

Bifurcated from PAU.

Marathwada Agriculture University ( MAU)

Parbhani ( Maharashtra)

1972

Single Campuses

Rajendra Agriculture University ( RAU)

Pusa, Dist Samastipur ( Bihar)

1971

5 Campuses

Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth  ( KKV)

Dapoli ( Maharashtra)

1972

4 Campuses

Tamil Nadu Agriculture University ( TNAU)

Coimbatore ( T.N)

1972

3 Campuses

Gujarat Agriculture University

Dantiwada ( Dist, Bankantha, Gujarat)

1972

3 Campuses

Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya( BCKVV)

Haringhatta ( Dist. Bankantha, Gujarat )

1972

3 Campuses

Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology ( CSAUT)

Kanpur ( U.P)

1976

Single campuses

Himachal Pradesh Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya ( HPVV)

Palampur ( H.P

1978

2 Campuses

birsa Agriculture University

Ranchi ( Jharkhand)

1989

Single Campuses

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology ( Kashmir)

Srinagar( J and K0

 

1 Campuses

 

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Features of Ideotype Breeding https://agriinfo.in/features-of-ideotype-breeding-2090/ https://agriinfo.in/features-of-ideotype-breeding-2090/#respond Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:51:14 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/04/17/features-of-ideotype-breeding/ Features of Ideotype Breeding Ideotype breeding or plant type breeding can be defined as a method of crop improvement which is used to enhance yield potential through genetic manipulation of individual plant characters are chosen in such a way that each character contributes towards increased economic yield. Main features of Ideotype breeding are briefly discussed […]

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Features of Ideotype Breeding

Ideotype breeding or plant type breeding can be defined as a method of crop improvement which is used to enhance yield potential through genetic manipulation of individual plant characters are chosen in such a way that each character contributes towards increased economic yield. Main features of Ideotype breeding are briefly discussed below:

1. Emphasis on Individual Trait:

In Ideotype breeding, emphasis is given on individual morphological and physiological trait which enhances the yield. The value of each character is specified before initiating the breeding work.

2. Includes Yield Enhancing Traits:

Various plant characters to be included in the Ideotype are identified through correlation analysis. Only those characters which exhibit positive association with yield are included in the model.

3. Exploits Physiological Variation:

Genetic difference exists for various physiological characters such as photosynthetic efficiency. Photo respiration, nutrient uptake, etc. Ideotype breeding makes use of genetically controlled physiological variation in increasing crop yields, besides various agronomic traits.

4. Slow Progress:

Ideotype breeding is a slow method of cultivar development, because incorporation of various desirable characters from different sources into a single genotype takes long time. Moreover, sometimes undesirable linkage affects the progress adversely.  
    
5. Selection:

In Ideotype breeding selection is focussed on individual plant character which enhances the yields.

6. Designing of Model:

In Ideotype breeding, the phenotypes of new variety to be developed is specified in terms of morphological and physiological traits in advance.

7. Interdisciplinary Approach:

Ideotype breeding is in true sense an interdisciplinary approach. It involves scientist from the disciplines of genetics, breeding, physiology, pathology, entomology etc.

8. A Continuous Process:

Ideotype breeding is a continuous process, because new Ideotype have to be developed to meet changing and increasing demands. Thus development of Ideotype is a moving target.

Ideotype breeding differs from traditional breeding in the sense that values for individual traits are specified in case of Ideotype breeding, whereas such values are not fixed and then efforts are made to achieve such model. In traditional breeding, such models are not developed before initiation of breeding programmes. There are several differences between traditional breeding and Ideotype breeding.

 

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Plant Breeding Practices in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, 2n=4x=40) https://agriinfo.in/plant-breeding-practices-in-groundnut-arachis-hypogaea-2n4x40-2139/ https://agriinfo.in/plant-breeding-practices-in-groundnut-arachis-hypogaea-2n4x40-2139/#respond Sun, 15 Apr 2018 09:03:32 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/04/15/plant-breeding-practices-in-groundnut-arachis-hypogaea-2n4x40/ Plant Breeding Practices in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, 2n=4x=40) Groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea, 2n =4x=40) is major oil seed crop in India, occupies 45% of total seed area in the world and contributes 55 % of oil seed production. India ranks first in the world in terms of both area and production. The productivity of groundnut […]

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Plant Breeding Practices in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, 2n=4x=40)

Groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea, 2n =4x=40) is major oil seed crop in India, occupies 45% of total seed area in the world and contributes 55 % of oil seed production. India ranks first in the world in terms of both area and production. The productivity of groundnut is low and it ranks 10th in worlds groundnut productivity. The crop is widely cultivated in Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra, Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Punjab.

Origin:

Groundnut has primary centre of origin Brazil. Similarly South America, and Africa are considered as secondary centres of origin as wide variability in the cultivated species. The cultivated species A. Hypogaea probably originated from wild tetraploid species A monticola and is most likely proginator of A. hypogaea.

Botany and Floral Biology:

Groundnut is herbaceous annual plant, basically interlineate in growth habit. The habits are bunch ( erect) , semi spreading ( ovate) and spreading ( prostate). In spreading forms the axis is very short and erect and primary branches spread horizontally along with ground. In bunchy type main axis is long and erect and primary branches are oblique to the main axis. The intermediate forms between these two are classified as semi spreading.

The plant has tap root system consist of numerous lateral roots. Being leguminous crop root nodules are developed on roots that help fix atmospheric nitrogen. An inflorescence products cataphylls at first node that give rise to flower. The flower developed either above or below the ground level. They are sessile orange to yellow in colour complete and papilonaceous in nature. The corolla having five petals i.e a standard two wings and partially united two keels. It is placed in end of the long calyx tube having five sepals in gamosepalous condition with three lobes. The stamens are 8-10 in number and only eight bear anthers. They are in monoadephous condition. The stigma usually protrudes above the anther level.

Flowering:

Groundnut is self –pollinated crop but out crossing may occur up to 2.5% . It is extremely difficult for crossing. The flower opens early in the morning. i.e. 6-9 a.m. and anther dehisce 1 to 2 hours before opening the flower. Next day all flower parts except small sessile ovary withers. Normally the flowering period last 3 to 6 weeks in case of bunch and 6 to 8 weeks in case of spreading types. After fertilization gynophores i.e. stalk of the ovary, elongate forming peg, curved downward pushing the ovary into the soil where the pod develops.

Emascualtions:

It is done in late afternoon or evening between 5.00 to 6.00 p.m the flower buds which will open on the next day morning are selected for emasculation. The flower bud is gently held in left hand and with the help of forceps, the standard petal, wings and keels are opened and all anthers are removed. Petals are placed in their original position to serves as the protective covering on the stigma. Hence, the bagging may or may not be done in order to avoid damage to the flower.

Pollination:

In the next day morning between 5.00 to 8.00 a.m. the flowers of selected parents are directly used for pollination or pollen grains are collected in petri dish and applied over stigma of emasculated flower with the help of hair brush. The pollinated flower bagged and labelled. After fertilization gynophores starts elongating. Tagging is done after identification as the pods are developed below the soil surface.

Breeding Objectives:

Breeding varieties with

1. High pod yield
2. Early maturity
3. High shelling percentage with high oil content
4. Resistant to Tikka, bud necrosis, Rust and Virus.
5. Resistant to Leaf minor, White grub, Aphid and Thrips.
6. Tolerant to drought and cold.
7. Erect type plant with dormancy period.

Breeding Methods:

1) Introduction:

The varieties developed and released in other states or counties imported and after evaluation may be released for commercial cultivation. For example:

a. UF 70-103 introduction from university of florida
b. M-13 introduction from Ludhiana- Punjab       
c. Robout introduction from Nigeria.

2) Selection:

From local land races desirable types suited to the environmental conditions are selected and evaluated along with existing varieties if found superior selected strains released as improved varieties.

a. JL-24 ( Phule Pragati) selection from 94943.
b. Kopergoan 3 selection from local collection.
c. Karad 4-11 selection from local collection.
d. ICGS 11 selection from Robout 33-1.

3) Pedigree Method:

The elite lines are mated to produce the desirable progeny to combine deisirbale characters from two different varieties and selections are made F3 and onward generations for yield and desirable characters. The selected strains after attaining homozygosity evaluated in multi location trails and if founds superior released as improved variety, E.g. SB-XI ( AH4298 X 4354), Koyana ( M13 X Sulamit), Gaug 1 (AK 10 X AK 124).

4) Mutation Breeding:
 
Natural mutation or induced mutation can also be used in development of improved varieties.

1. TMV 10 natural mutation from Argentina
2. TG 1 ( VIKRAM) X ray induced mutation from Spanish.
3. TAG 24 X-ray induced mutation.
4. TG 26 X-ray induced mutation.

International Crop Improvement:

ICRISAT establish 1972, Patancheru, Hyderabad, varieties developed ICGS 1, ICGS11, ISCG44 and ICGS FDRS 10.

National Centres:

1. Directorate of oil seed research (DOR) Hyderabad
2. National centre for groundnut (NRCG) Junagad, Gujarat.

Conduct multidisciplinary research on groundnut with collaboration of AICRPO centres in the country.

AICRPO centres working on groundnut are ARS Digras, M.P.K.V, Rahuri, ARS Jargon, P.D.K.V, Akola, M.K.V, Parbhani ARS Latur and BARC in Maharashtra.

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Practical Achievements in Insect Resistance Breeding https://agriinfo.in/practical-achievements-in-insect-resistance-breeding-2119/ https://agriinfo.in/practical-achievements-in-insect-resistance-breeding-2119/#respond Sun, 15 Apr 2018 02:33:49 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/04/15/practical-achievements-in-insect-resistance-breeding/ Practical Achievements in Insect Resistance Breeding Insect resistant varieties have been developed in many crops. Phylloxera resistant varieties of grapes have been developed in France though the use of resistant root stocks introduced from U.S.A. In USA, Hessain fly and stem sawfly were the serious insect pests of wheat. More than 23 Hessain varieties have […]

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Practical Achievements in Insect Resistance Breeding

Insect resistant varieties have been developed in many crops. Phylloxera resistant varieties of grapes have been developed in France though the use of resistant root stocks introduced from U.S.A. In USA, Hessain fly and stem sawfly were the serious insect pests of wheat. More than 23 Hessain varieties have been developed. These varieties are successfully grown in Hessian fly prone areas of USA. Stem sawfly resistant variety ‘Rescue’ with solid stem was released from Canada in 1946. this variety is successfully grown in stem sawfly , prone areas in USA and Canada. In Maize, resistant varieties to rust have been released and maize rust is no longer a serious disease in U.S.A. a barley variety ‘Will’ resistant to green bugs has been developed in USA. Cultivation of this variety has reduced the population of greenhouse to 50%. Alfalfa varieties ‘Cody’, Mopa and Zia, developed in USA, are resistant to spotted alfalfa aphid. Oat variety, ‘Greta’ developed in Belgium is resistant to stem eelworm.

In cotton varieties, B-1007, SRT1, Khandwa2, DHY 286, PKV 091, evolved in India are resistant to Jassids. These varieties are successfully grown in Central India. Cotton varieties, Kanchana, Supriya, and LK861 are tolerant to whitefly. Insect resistant varieties have been developed in many other crops. For example, in raspberry to aphid, in lettuce to root aphid, in apple to wolly apple aphid, in grape to Phylloxera , etc.

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Germplasm Activity – Evaluation https://agriinfo.in/germplasm-activity-evaluation-2077/ https://agriinfo.in/germplasm-activity-evaluation-2077/#respond Thu, 12 Apr 2018 20:14:11 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/04/12/germplasm-activity-evaluation/ Germplasm Activity – Evaluation Evaluation refers to screening of germplasm in respect of morphological genetical, economic, biochemical, and physiological, pathological, and entomological attributes. Evaluation of germplasm is essential from following angles. 1. To identify gene source for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, earliness, dwarfness, productivity, and quality characters. 2. To classify the germplasm into […]

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Germplasm Activity – Evaluation

Evaluation refers to screening of germplasm in respect of morphological genetical, economic, biochemical, and physiological, pathological, and entomological attributes. Evaluation of germplasm is essential from following angles.

1. To identify gene source for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, earliness, dwarfness, productivity, and quality characters.
2. To classify the germplasm into various groups.
3. To get a clear picture about the significance of individual germplasm line.

Evaluation requires a term of specialists from the disciplines of plant breeding, physiology, biochemistry, pathology and entomology. First of all a list of descriptors (Characters) for which evaluation has to be done is prepared. This task is completed by a team of experts from IPGRI, Rome, Italy. The descriptions are ready for various crops. The material is evaluated at several locations to get meaningful results. Moreover, evaluation is done in a phased manner. The variation for polygenic character is assessed by three different methods as given below:
1. By simple measures of dispersion (range, standard deviation, standard error and coefficient of variation)
2. By metroglyph analysis of Anderson (1957) and
3. By D2 statistics of P.C Mahalanobis (1936).

The evaluation of germplasm is down in three different places, viz. 1) In the field, 2) In green house, and 3) In the laboratory, observation on morphological characters, parameters like photosynthetic efficiency and transpiration rate can be recorded under field conditions using portable instruments. The resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses can also be screened under green house conditions. Evaluation for biochemical characters like protein, oil and amino acid contents, and technological character is competed under laboratory conditions. Both visual observation and metric measurements are used for evaluation.

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The Centres of Origin as Proposed by N.I Vavilov (1926, 1935) https://agriinfo.in/the-centres-of-origin-as-proposed-by-n-i-vavilov-1926-1935-2069/ https://agriinfo.in/the-centres-of-origin-as-proposed-by-n-i-vavilov-1926-1935-2069/#respond Sat, 07 Apr 2018 06:29:25 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/04/07/the-centres-of-origin-as-proposed-by-n-i-vavilov-1926-1935/ The Centres of Origin as Proposed by N.I Vavilov (1926, 1935)   Centre of Origin Primary Centre of Origin Secondary Centre of Origin Abyssinian Centre Barley , Triticum spp, jawar, bajara, gram, lentil,pea,khesari, liseed, safflower, seasamum, castor, coffee, onion, okra,etc Broad bean ( Vicia faba) Asia Minor Centre ( Syn, near East or Persian Centre) […]

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The Centres of Origin as Proposed by N.I Vavilov (1926, 1935)
 

Centre of Origin

Primary Centre of Origin

Secondary Centre of Origin

Abyssinian Centre

Barley , Triticum spp, jawar, bajara, gram, lentil,pea,khesari, liseed, safflower, seasamum, castor, coffee, onion, okra,etc

Broad bean ( Vicia faba)

Asia Minor Centre ( Syn, near East or Persian Centre)

Triticum spp, rye, alfalfa, carrot, cabbage, oat, lettuce, apple, pyrus spp, prunus spp, grape, alomond, chestnut, pistachio nut, persain clover, etc.

B.compestris , B. nigra, turnip, apricot, etc.

Central American Centre (Syn. Mexican Centre)

Maize, rajma, lina beans, melon, pumkin, sweet potato, arrowrrot, chillies, G.hirsutum, papaya, guava, avacado, etc.

 

Centra Asia Centre ( Syn, Afganistan Centre)

Triticum aestivum , pea, mung, linseed, sasamum, safflower, hemp, G. herbaceum, radish, muskmelon, carrot, onion, garlic, spinach, pear, almond, grape, apple, etc.

Rye ( Secale cereale)

China Centre

Soybean , radish, bunda (Colocasia sp), proso millet, buckwheat, opium poppy, brinjal, pear, peach, apricot, plum, orange, Chinese tea, etc

Maize, rajma, cowpea, turnip, seasamum, etc.

Hindustan Centre ( Divided into 1) Indoburma and 2) Siam-malaya- java Centre)

Rice , pigeon pea, chickpea, cowpea, mung, brinjal, cucumber, Indian radish , noble canes, G.arboreum, Mango, orange, coconut, banana, etc.

 

Mediterranean Centre

Triticum spp, barley, Avena spp, lentil, pea, broad bean, lathyrus spp, chickpea, clovers, Brassica spp, onion, garlic, beets, lettuce, asparagus, lavender, peppermint, etc.

 

South American Centre ( Divided into 1) Peru, 2) Chill, and 3) Brazil Paraguay Centre)

Potato, maize, lima bean, peanut, pineapple, pumpkin, G.barbadense, tomato, tobacco, guava, quinie tree, cassava, rubber, etc.

 

U.S.A Centre

Sunflower, Jerusalem artichoke.

 

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Source of Drought Resistance in Plant Breeding https://agriinfo.in/source-of-drought-resistance-in-plant-breeding-2125/ https://agriinfo.in/source-of-drought-resistance-in-plant-breeding-2125/#respond Wed, 04 Apr 2018 16:36:37 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/04/04/source-of-drought-resistance-in-plant-breeding/ Source of Drought Resistance in Plant Breeding There are three main sources of drought resistance in crop plants: 1) Cultivated varieties, 2) Germplasm collections, and 3) Wild relatives and wild species. Transfer of drought resistance is easy from cultivated variety and germplasm of cultivated species, because such material can be easily used in the breeding […]

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Source of Drought Resistance in Plant Breeding

There are three main sources of drought resistance in crop plants: 1) Cultivated varieties, 2) Germplasm collections, and 3) Wild relatives and wild species. Transfer of drought resistance is easy from cultivated variety and germplasm of cultivated species, because such material can be easily used in the breeding programmes. Moreover, there is no problem of cross incompatibility. When the source of drought resistance is a wild species, the transfer of resistance poses several problems such as cross incompatibility, hybrid inviability, hybrid sterility and linkage of several undesirable genes with desirable ones. Wild sources of drought resistance have been reported in wheat, sugarcane, tomato, and several other crops.

Wild Sources of Resistance to Drought and Salinity in Some Crop Plants:

Name of Crop

Name of Wild Species

Resistant Available for

Wheat

Aegliops kotsehyi

Drought

 

Ae.variabills

Drought

 

Ae.speltoider

Drought

 

Ae. Umbellulata

Drought

 

Ae.squarrosa

Drought

 

Agropyron seirpea

Salinity

 

A.pontica

Salinity

 

A.junceiformis

Salinity

 

A.cliac

Salinity

Sugarcane

Saccharum spontaneum

Drought and Salinity

 

Lycopersicon cheesmanii

Salinity

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The Gene Pool System of Classification https://agriinfo.in/the-gene-pool-system-of-classification-2071/ https://agriinfo.in/the-gene-pool-system-of-classification-2071/#respond Wed, 21 Mar 2018 05:36:18 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/03/21/the-gene-pool-system-of-classification/ The Gene Pool System of Classification Gene pool of a crop included all cultivars (Obsolete and current) , wild species and wild relatives containing all the genes available for breeding use. Based on degree of relationship, the gene pool of a crop can be divided into three groups, viz. 1) Primary gene pool, 2) Secondary […]

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The Gene Pool System of Classification

Gene pool of a crop included all cultivars (Obsolete and current) , wild species and wild relatives containing all the genes available for breeding use. Based on degree of relationship, the gene pool of a crop can be divided into three groups, viz. 1) Primary gene pool, 2) Secondary gene pool, 3) Tertiary gene pool (Harland and Dewet, 1971). These are briefly discussed below:

1. Primary Gene Pool (GP1):

The gene pool in which intermating is easy and leads to production of fertile hybrids is known as primary gene pool. It includes plants of the same species or of closely related species which produce completely fertile offspring’s on intermating. In such gene pool, genes can be exchanged between lines simply by making normal crosses. This is also known as gene pool one (GP1). This is the material of prime breeding importance.

2. Secondary Gene Pool (GP2):

The genetic material that leads to partially fertility on crossing with GP1 is referred to as secondary gene pool. It includes plants that belong to related species. Such material can be crossed with primary gene pool, but usually the hybrids are sterile and some of the progeny to some extent are fertile. Transfer of gene from such material to primary gene pool is possible but different. This type of gene pool is also known as gene pool two (GP2).

3. Tertiary Gene Pool (GP3):

The genetic material which leads to production of sterile hybrids on crossing will primary gene pool is termed as tertiary gene pool or gene pool three (GP3). It includes material which can be crossed with GP1, but the hybrids are sterile. Transfer of gene from such material to primary gene pool is possible with the help of special techniques.

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Cross Pollinated Species https://agriinfo.in/cross-pollinated-species-2065/ https://agriinfo.in/cross-pollinated-species-2065/#respond Sun, 11 Mar 2018 23:39:02 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/03/11/cross-pollinated-species/ Cross Pollinated Species Cereals: 1. Maize (Zea mays) 2. Rye (Secale cereale) 3. Bajra (Pennisetum americanum) 4. Niger (Guzotia Abyssinia) Legumes: 1. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) 2. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) 3. White clover (Trifolium repens) 4. Crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) 5. Sweet clover (Melitotus officianalis) 6. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) Vegetables: 1. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) […]

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Cross Pollinated Species

Cereals:

1. Maize (Zea mays)
2. Rye (Secale cereale)
3. Bajra (Pennisetum americanum)
4. Niger (Guzotia Abyssinia)

Legumes:

1. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)
2. Red clover (Trifolium pratense)
3. White clover (Trifolium repens)
4. Crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum)
5. Sweet clover (Melitotus officianalis)
6. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)

Vegetables:

1. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)
2. Carrot (Daucus carota)
3. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea)
4. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
5. Onion (Allium cepa)
6. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima)
7. Radish (Raphaus sativus)
8. Turnip (Brassica rapa)
9. Muskmelon (Cucurbita moschata)
10. Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris)
11. Squash (Cucurbita melanosperma)
12. Sweet potato (lpomoea batatas)
13. Other cucurbits ( Cucurbita sp)
14. Beets (Beta vulgaris)
15. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea)
16. Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea)
17. Parsley (Petroselinum hortense)
18. Celery (Apium graveolens)
19. Spinach (Spinacea oleracea)
20. Asparagus (Asparagus officianlis )
21. Garlic (Allium sativum)
22. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum)

Oil Seeds:

1. Some strains of Brassica compestris
2. Sunflower (Helianthus annus)
3. Castor (Ricinus communis)

Forage Crops:

1. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne)
2. Timothy grass (Phleum pratense)
3. Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis)
4. Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense)

Other Crops:

Sugarcane (Saccharum oficinarum)
Some lines of potato (S. tuberosome)
Hemp (Canabis indica)
Hops (Humulus lupulus)

Fruits:

1. Apple (Pyrus malus)
2. Avocado (Persea americana)
3. Mango (Mangifera indica)
4. Pear (Pyrus communis)
5. Blackberries (Rubus fruticous)
6. Raspberries (Rubus sp)
7. Walnut (Juglans regia)
8. Chestnut (Castanea sativa and C.vexa)
9. Hazelnut (Corylus americana and C. cornuta)
10. Banana (Musa sapientum)
11. Cherry (Prunus avium)
12. Date plam (Phenix dactifera)
13. Fig (Ficus carica)
14. Coconut (Cocos nucifera)
15. Grapes (Vitis vinifera)
16. Papaya (Carica papaya)
17. Plum (Prunus divaricata)
18. Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica)
19. Strawberries (Fragaria sp)
20. Almod (Prumus amygdalus)
21. Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera)

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