Botany – agriinfo.in https://agriinfo.in Sun, 14 Apr 2019 13:11:12 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.1.1 Difference between Synthetic and Composite Variety https://agriinfo.in/difference-between-synthetic-and-composite-variety-1767/ https://agriinfo.in/difference-between-synthetic-and-composite-variety-1767/#respond Sat, 19 May 2018 17:19:15 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/19/difference-between-synthetic-and-composite-variety/ Difference between Synthetic and Composite Variety Sr.No Synthetic Variety Composite Variety 1 Crossing in all combination of number of lines that combine well with each other Mixing the seeds of several phenotypically outstanding lines it and encouraging open pollination to produce crosses in all combination among the lines 2 4-10 numbers of parents are involved. […]

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Difference between Synthetic and Composite Variety

Sr.No

Synthetic Variety

Composite Variety

1

Crossing in all combination of number of lines that combine well with each other

Mixing the seeds of several phenotypically outstanding lines it and encouraging open pollination to produce crosses in all combination among the lines

2

4-10 numbers of parents are involved.

Many numbers of parents involved.

3

It is tested for GCA.

Not tested for GCA

4

Cost of seed is less than composite variety.

Cost of seed is less than hybrid.

5

It shows less heterosis than hybrid.

It shows more heterosis than synthetic.

6

Reconstituted is done

Reconstituted is never done.

7

Prediction of performance possible.

Prediction of performance is not possible.

8

Maintenance of variety easy.

Maintenance of variety is difficult but easy than hybrid.

9

Ex. ICMS- 7703, ICMS-7704

Ex. ICTP-8203, WCC-75.

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Crop Dryers https://agriinfo.in/crop-dryers-2298/ https://agriinfo.in/crop-dryers-2298/#respond Thu, 17 May 2018 09:05:40 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/17/crop-dryers/ Crop Dryers Dryers for heated air drying are complete units, incorporating both a heater unit where fuel is burned, and a fan to force the heated air thorough a canvas connecting duct and into the air distribution system of the drying bin. Safety features are also included such as automatic thermostatic high limit temperature control, […]

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Crop Dryers

Dryers for heated air drying are complete units, incorporating both a heater unit where fuel is burned, and a fan to force the heated air thorough a canvas connecting duct and into the air distribution system of the drying bin. Safety features are also included such as automatic thermostatic high limit temperature control, which cuts off the burner flame if the air temperature exceeds a certain safe maximum; and a flame failure control which automatically cuts off fuel flow to the burner if the flame should go out. It is also highly desirable to have a thermostat which will automatically maintain the air temperature at a desired setting. Such thermostat are either included as a standard feature in many dryers, or can be purchased as an option.

Dryers come into two main types, according to manner in which heat is supplied to air:

1. Direct Fired
2. Indirect Fired

1. Direct Fired:

In a direct fired dryer, the fuel is burned and the hot combustion gases are thrown directly into the air stream which goes into the air distribution system. The use of heat is highly efficient, but there is possibility of blowing soot, unburned fuel and the objectionable flumes into the seed. This happen if the burner is allowed to gate out of adjustment so that fuel is not completely burned. With some fuels there is danger of blowing small sparks into the seed.

2. Indirect Fired:

In an indirect fired dryer, the hot combustion gases pass into a chamber. The drying air circulates around this chamber, thus heat exchanger and picks up heat just as in a hot air fumes. Thus, drying air can include combustion gases , sparks, soot or fumes. Indirect fired dryers are less efficient in the use of heat, than direct fired once, but are safer.

The dryers are also designed to burn various fules, E .g Liquid propane( LP) or butane , natural gas, fuel oil, and coal ( coal is now really used as a fuel).

The liquid propane and natural gas which are readily burned, with minimum possibility of soot, are best for direct fired dryers, and fuel oil (Kerosene oil) for indirect fired dryers.

The fan of the dryer may be driven by either an electric motor or gasoline engine and power take off (PTO). Electric motors are the most efficient, economical and most commonly used.

Several makes of crop dryers are available and could be chosen as per requirements of the operation.

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Seed Cleaning Method – Basic Seed Cleaning https://agriinfo.in/seed-cleaning-method-basic-seed-cleaning-2-2311/ https://agriinfo.in/seed-cleaning-method-basic-seed-cleaning-2-2311/#respond Wed, 16 May 2018 19:27:16 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/16/seed-cleaning-method-basic-seed-cleaning-2/ Seed Cleaning Method – Basic Seed Cleaning Basic seed cleaning refers to actual cleaning and grading of seeds. Unlike pre-cleaning/ Precleaning/ pre-conditioning, which may or may not be required, basic seed cleaning is an essential process in the seed cleaning operations. Many kinds of seeds can be completely cleaned and made into a finished product […]

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Seed Cleaning Method – Basic Seed Cleaning

Basic seed cleaning refers to actual cleaning and grading of seeds. Unlike pre-cleaning/ Precleaning/ pre-conditioning, which may or may not be required, basic seed cleaning is an essential process in the seed cleaning operations. Many kinds of seeds can be completely cleaned and made into a finished product by, basic cleaning. In other instances, however, further separations to remove specific contaminants may be necessary, or desirable. Regardless of whether further specific separations are made or are not made, basic seed cleaning for every lot is invariably done.

Equipment for basic seed cleaning. Basic seed cleaning is done over an air screen machine, commonly referred to as an air screen cleaner. It is also basic equipment in seed processing plants.

 

 

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Procedure for Registration of Seed Variety https://agriinfo.in/procedure-for-registration-of-seed-variety-2295/ https://agriinfo.in/procedure-for-registration-of-seed-variety-2295/#respond Wed, 16 May 2018 02:54:24 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/16/procedure-for-registration-of-seed-variety/ Procedure for Registration of Seed Variety The application for registration of a variety is made in the specified form to the Register of plant varieties. Each such variety must be given a single and distinct name consisting of either letters or a combination of letters and numbers. The application must ‘contain complete passport data of […]

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Procedure for Registration of Seed Variety

The application for registration of a variety is made in the specified form to the Register of plant varieties. Each such variety must be given a single and distinct name consisting of either letters or a combination of letters and numbers. The application must ‘contain complete passport data of the parental lines from which the variety has been derived, the geographical location in India from where the genetic material was taken must be disclosed. The application must state the contribution, if any , of any farmer, village community, institution, or organization in breeding, evolving or developing the variety’. The application must contain ‘ a brief description of the variety bringing out its characteristics of novelty, distinctiveness, uniformity and stability’. The applicant must also submit and affidavit that the variety does not contain any gene or gene sequence involving terminator technology. A declaration must also be made that the genetic material used for developing the variety has been lawfully acquired.

The applicant shall provide to the registar of plant varieties the specified quantity of seed of the varieties to the register. The seed shall be used to conduct tests to ascertain whether seeds of such variety along with its parental material conform to the specified standards.

The application is then examined and the Registar of Plant Varieties may accept, reject or ask the application to the suitably amended. When an application is accepted, the application along with the photographs / drawings is advertised calling objections from interested persons / parties within 3 month from the date of advertisement. Objections can be made on the following grounds: 1) a claim of entailment for the breeder’s rights, 2) the variety being not registrable, 3) the registration being against, the public interest, or 4) the variety having adverse effects on the environment.

The objections will be intimated to the applicant, who will then submit his response to them. The persons(s)/party (ies) who had filed the objections will be given a copy of the response from the applicant.

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Need for Plant Breeders Right https://agriinfo.in/need-for-plant-breeders-right-2287/ https://agriinfo.in/need-for-plant-breeders-right-2287/#respond Tue, 15 May 2018 15:59:43 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/15/need-for-plant-breeders-right/ Need for Plant Breeders Right The consideration that prompted the development of PBR system in the developed world were as follows: 1. It encourages breeders by provide economic incentives. 2. It encourages private sector to invest in plant breeding activities. 3. The development of a variety is an innovation. There fore’s, a plant variety is […]

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Need for Plant Breeders Right

The consideration that prompted the development of PBR system in the developed world were as follows:

1. It encourages breeders by provide economic incentives.
2. It encourages private sector to invest in plant breeding activities.
3. The development of a variety is an innovation. There fore’s, a plant variety is an intellectual property, which should be protected.

Initially, it was proposed to patent plant varieties. But this was not favoured, especially, in Europe due to following considerations.

1. Industrial patents are applicable to inanimate objects.
2. Plant varieties are not absolutely stable.
3. An exact description of plant materials is not possible.
4. There is a lack of repeatability in breeding plant varieties.
5. Plant varieties do not fulfil the criterion of inventiveness for patents since they contain only new combinations of pre-existing alleles/ genes.

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Introduction to Ideotype Breeding https://agriinfo.in/introduction-to-ideotype-breeding-2089/ https://agriinfo.in/introduction-to-ideotype-breeding-2089/#respond Sat, 12 May 2018 11:10:41 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/12/introduction-to-ideotype-breeding/ Introduction to Ideotype Breeding In broad sense an Ideotype model which is expected to perform or behave in a predictable manner within a defined environment. More specifically, crop Ideotype is a plant model which is expected to yield greater quantity of grains, fibre, oil or other useful product when developed as a cultivar. The term […]

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Introduction to Ideotype Breeding

In broad sense an Ideotype model which is expected to perform or behave in a predictable manner within a defined environment. More specifically, crop Ideotype is a plant model which is expected to yield greater quantity of grains, fibre, oil or other useful product when developed as a cultivar. The term Ideotype was first proposed by Donald in 1968 working on wheat. The main points about Ideotype are given below:

1. Crop Ideotype refers to model plants or ideas plant type for a specific environment.
2. Ideotype differs from Ideotype. The former refers to a combination of various plant characters which enhance the yield of economic produce, whereas the latter refers to the morphological features of the chromosomes of a particular plant species.
3. Donald included only morphological characters to define an Ideotype of wheat, subsequently, physiological and biochemical traits were also included for broadening the concept of crop Ideotype.
4. Ideal plants or model plants are expected to give higher yield than old cultivars in a defined environment.
5. Ideotype is a moving goal which changes according to climatic situation, type of cultivation, national polley, market requirement etc. In other words, Ideotype have to be redesigned depending upon above factors. Thus, development of crop Ideotype is a continuous process.
6. Ideal plant type or model plant type also varies from species. Moreover, this is a difficult and slow method of cultivar development because various morphological, physiological and biochemical characters have to be combined a single genotype from different sources.

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The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Act, 2001 https://agriinfo.in/the-protection-of-plant-varieties-and-farmers-rights-act-2001-2293/ https://agriinfo.in/the-protection-of-plant-varieties-and-farmers-rights-act-2001-2293/#respond Sat, 12 May 2018 00:20:50 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/12/the-protection-of-plant-varieties-and-farmers-rights-act-2001/ The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Act, 2001 Most developed countries have a PBR system in force. The situation in India differes from that in the developed countries in the following respects. 1. Plant breeding activity is mainly carried out by the public sector. 2. Private sector is not yet a major contributor. […]

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The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Act, 2001

Most developed countries have a PBR system in force. The situation in India differes from that in the developed countries in the following respects.

1. Plant breeding activity is mainly carried out by the public sector.
2. Private sector is not yet a major contributor.

There have been arguments that the situation is not ripe for a PBR system in India, but the arguments appear as artificial and are unconvincing. Some have suggested that Asian countries must evolve their own PBR systems with the following provisions.

1. Recognition of community interests, E. g Informal systems of open-pollinated varieties, etc.
2. Extension of the concept of essentially – derived varieties to the unprotected varieties.  

In any case, India is obligated, under TRIPs to adopt UPOV Act (1991) , allow patents or enact a sui generis PBR system that affords protection equivalent to UPOV Act ( 1991) or a patent. India had been trying to develop a sui generis system of PBR (Rana, 1995). A sui generis system simply means a system of their own. E. g Designed by them, in this case, India. These efforts have culminated in the passage of ‘The Protection of plant varieties and Farmers Rights Act, 2001 (PPVFR Act, 2001) on August 9, 2001 by the Lok Sabha. The Act aims to provide for the establishment of an effective system for protection of plant varieties, the rights of farmers and plant breeders and to encourage the development of new varieties of plants.

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Inbreeding and Inbreeding Depression https://agriinfo.in/inbreeding-and-inbreeding-depression-1759/ https://agriinfo.in/inbreeding-and-inbreeding-depression-1759/#respond Fri, 11 May 2018 02:43:49 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/11/inbreeding-and-inbreeding-depression/ Inbreeding and Inbreeding Depression Definition of Inbreeding: Inbreeding is a form of mating system in sexual organism. It implies mating together of individual that are close to each other by ancestral or pedigree relationship. When the individuals are closely related E. g Full sib was mating, half sib mating. The highest degree of inbreeding is […]

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Inbreeding and Inbreeding Depression

Definition of Inbreeding:

Inbreeding is a form of mating system in sexual organism. It implies mating together of individual that are close to each other by ancestral or pedigree relationship.

When the individuals are closely related E. g Full sib was mating, half sib mating. The highest degree of inbreeding is achieved by selfing. The chief effect of inbreeding is to increase homozygosity in the progeny, which is proportionate to the degree of inbreeding. Cross – pollinated and asexually reproducing species are highly heterozygous in nature. These species show a severe reduction in fertility and vigour due to inbreeding (inbreeding depression). It contrast to this hybridization between unrelated strains leads to an increased vigour and fertility (hybrid vigour or heterosis). These two aspects are of great significance in breeding of these species. In fact heterosis and inbreeding depression may be considered as the two opposite sides of the same coin.

Inbreeding Depression:

It refers to decrease in fitness and vigour due to inbreeding or it may be defined as the reduction or loss in vigour and fertility as a result of inbreeding.

The most revealing impact of inbreeding is the loss of vigour and the physiological efficiency of an organism characterised by reduction in size and fecundity. For example selfing reduces heterozygosity, by a factor ½ in each generation. In fact the dwgree of inbreeding in any generation is equal to the degree of homozygosity in that generation. Inbreeding depression results due to fixation of unfavourable recessive genes in F2, while in heterosis the unfavourable recessive genes of one line (parent) are covered by favourable dominant genes of other parent.

Man has recognised inbreeding depression for a long time. In many species marriage between closely related ancestries have been prohibited. In hindu society perhaps presents the extreme example, where marriages between individual related by ancestry is prohibited.

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Method of Plant Breeding in Self Pollinated Plants – Pedigree Methods https://agriinfo.in/method-of-plant-breeding-in-self-pollinated-plants-pedigree-methods-1732/ https://agriinfo.in/method-of-plant-breeding-in-self-pollinated-plants-pedigree-methods-1732/#respond Thu, 10 May 2018 21:06:34 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/10/method-of-plant-breeding-in-self-pollinated-plants-pedigree-methods/ Method of Plant Breeding in Self Pollinated Plants – Pedigree Methods Mass selection and pure line selection cannot be applied to segregating population. E. g F2, F3 etc. The method is generally used for handling segregation generation may be grouped into three categories. i) Pedigree Method ii) Bulk Method iii) Back Cross Method The objectives […]

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Method of Plant Breeding in Self Pollinated Plants – Pedigree Methods

Mass selection and pure line selection cannot be applied to segregating population. E. g F2, F3 etc. The method is generally used for handling segregation generation may be grouped into three categories.

i) Pedigree Method
ii) Bulk Method
iii) Back Cross Method

The objectives of all these methods are to develop pure line varieties.

In pedigree method, individual plants are selected from F2 and the subsequent generation and their progenies are tested. During the entire operation, a record of the entire parent’s offspring relationship is kept, is known as pedigree record. The selection of individual plant is continued till the progenies show no segregation. At this stage, selection is done among the progenies, because there would be no genetic variation within progenies.

Pedigree Record:

In Pedigree method, a detailed record of the relationship between the selected plants and their progenies is maintained as a result of this each progeny in every generation can be traced back to the F2 plant from which it originated, such record is known as pedigree record or pedigree. The pedigree may be defined as a description of the ancestors of an individual and it generally goes back to some distant ancestors. Thus, it describes the parents grandparents, great grandparents so on of an individual.

Maintenance of Pedigree Record:

Pedigree record may be kept in several ways, but it should be simple and accurate. Generally, each cross is given a number. The first two digits of this number refer to the year in which the cross was made, and the remaining digits denote the serial number of the cross in that year.

For example, the number 7911, denotes the cross number 11 of the year 79. In the segregating generation one of the two systems of designation may be followed.

I) System:

In this system, the individual plant progenies in each generation are assigned row number, corresponding to their location in the plot. In addition each progeny in F4 and the subsequent generation is assigned the row number of the progeny in the preveious generation from which it was derived.

Generation

Number

Description

F3

7911-7

Progeny in the 7 th row in the F3 plot.

F4

7911-7-4

Progeny in the 4 th row in the F4 plot, selected from the progeny in the 7 th row of the F3 plot.

F5

7911-4-14

Progeny in the 14 th row in the F5 plot selected from the progeny in the 4 th row of the F4 plot.

F6

7911-14-3

Progeny in the 3 rd row in the F6 plot selected from the progeny in the 14 th row of the F5 plot.

Thus each progeny can be traced back to the F3 progeny or F2 plants, from which it originated. But for determining the pedigree of a progeny the breeder has to consult the records of the preveious year.

II) System-II:

In this system, in each generation the selected plants are assigned serial numbers within individual progenies. Each progeny or selected plant bear the serial number of all the plants in the preveious generation, related to it by direct descent. Thus, the plants selected in F2 are given serial numbers of their parents ( F2 plants). The plants selected from a progeny in F3 are given the number of that progeny and in each generation the selected plant also given a serial number.

Generation

Number

Description

F3

7911-7

Progeny obtained from plant number 7 selected in F2

F4

7911-7-4

Progeny from plant No.4 selected from F3 progeny , derived from the plant No.7 selected in F2

F5

7911-7-4-2

Progeny from plant No.2 selected from the F4 progeny derived from plant no.4 , selected from the F3 progeny, obtained from the plant No.7 selected in F2.

F6

7911-7-4-2-8

Progeny from plant No 8, selected from the F5 progeny, derived from the plant N0.2 selected from the F4 progeny of the plant No.4 selected from F3 progeny of the Plant No.7 selected in F2.

In this system, the pedigree of a progeny is immediately known and one done not have to refer to the preveious year record. But there are greater chances of error, since more number are to be recorded. In both the systems, the progenies are assigned a different serial number, when they become homozygous and are included in preliminary yield trials. This number is given to those homozygous lines that are included in preliminary yield trials. For keeping a pedigree records following point are important.

1) Only important characteristics should be recorded.
2) Only the promising should be included in the record. Poor progenies may be simply marked discard.
3) The pedigree record must be accurate.

Application of Pedigree Method:

1) Selection of desirable plants from the segregating population in self- pollinated crops.
2) This method is commonly used to correct some specific weaknesses of an established variety (Combination breeding).
3) It is also used in the selection of new superior recombinant type’s i.e Transgressive breeding.
4) This method is suitable for improving specific characteristics such as disease resistant, plant height, maturity etc.

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Importance of Single Cell Culture https://agriinfo.in/importance-of-single-cell-culture-1869/ https://agriinfo.in/importance-of-single-cell-culture-1869/#respond Thu, 10 May 2018 11:58:45 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/10/importance-of-single-cell-culture/ Importance of Single Cell Culture 1. Single cell culture could be used successfully to obtain single cell clones. 2. Plants could be regenerated from the callus tissues derived from single cell clones. 3. The occurrences of high degree of spontaneous variability in the cultured tissue and their exploitation through single cell culture are very important […]

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Importance of Single Cell Culture

1. Single cell culture could be used successfully to obtain single cell clones.

2. Plants could be regenerated from the callus tissues derived from single cell clones.

3. The occurrences of high degree of spontaneous variability in the cultured tissue and their exploitation through single cell culture are very important in relation to crop improvement programmes.

4. Isolated single cells can be handed as microbial system for the treatment of mutagens and for mutant selection. In practice, single cells are grown on medium containing the mutagenic compounds and the proliferation cell lines are isolated. The mutant nature of the selected cell lines can be confirmed by regenerating the plants and comparing their phenotypes with normal plant. Many cell lines resistant to amino acid analogues, antibiotics , herbicides , fungal toxins etc. have been selected by this simple method.

5. Several workers have reported the synthesis of several times higher amounts of alkaloids, stearoids by cell culture than the alkaloid content in the intact plant. Therefore, large scale production of such compounds from single cells is possible.

6. Biotransformation means the cellular conversion of an ecogenously supplied substrate compounds not available in the cell or the precursor of a particular cellular compound to a new compound or the known compounds in higher amount.

7. Induction of polyploidy has been found to be very useful for plant breeding to overcome the problem of sterility associated with hybrids of unrelated plants. Polyploidy can easily be achieved by single cell culture.

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