Brief History of Plant Tissue Culture
It was Gottlieb Haberland (1902) who in the first decade of this century pioneered the field of plant tissue culture. His idea was to achieve continued cell division in explanted tissue grown on nutrient medium. Following the discovery and use of auxins, the work of Gautherel, Nobecourt and White ushered in the second phase of plant tissue culture over 30 years ago. These and other workers determined the nutritional and hormonal requirements of the cultured plant tissues. It was observed that the whole plant could be successfully regenerated from undifferentiated tissues or even single cells in culture.
Papid advances in diverse aspect of plant culture have been made during the last few years and plant tissue culture techniques have been extensively applied to agriculture and industry.
Condensed Cronology of Important Development in the Plant Tissue Culture:
First attempt to culture isolated plant cells in vitro on artificial medium
WJ Robbins and W. Kotte
Culture of isolated roots ( for short periods) ( organ culture)
P R White
Demonstration of indefinite culture of tomato roots ( long period)
R J Gautheret and P Nobecourt
First long term plant tissue culture of callus, involving explants of cambail tissues isolated from carrot.
P R White
Callus culture of tobacco tumor tissues from intersepcific hybird of Nicotina glaucum X N.longsdorffi
J Van Overbeek
Discovery of nutritional value of liquid endosperm of coconut for culture of isolated carrot embryo.
P R White and A C Braun
Experiments on crownn-gall and tumor formation in plants, growth of bacteria free crown-gall tissues.
A Caplan and F C Stewart
Use of coconut milk plus 2, 4-D fro proliferation of cultured carrot and potato tissues
Culture of monocot tissues using coconut milk.
W H Muir
Inoculation of callus pieces in liquid medium can give a suspension of single cells amenable tosubculture. Development of technique for culture of single isolated cells.
Haploid culture from pollen of gymnosperm ( Ginkgo)
C O Miller, F Skeog and others
Discovery of cytokinins. E.g. Kinetin, or potent cell division factor.
Culture of gymnosperm tissues ( Sequoia)
F Skoog and C O Miller
Hypotheses that shoot and root initiation in cultured callus is regulated by the proportion of auxins and cytokinins in the culture medium.
E C Cocking
Enzymatic isolation and culture of protoplast.
Development of shoot apex culture technique.
Use of modified shoot apex technique for orchid proportion.
S G Guha and S C Maheshwari
Cultured anthers and pollen and produce haploid embryos.
J P Nitsch
Culture of microspores of Datura and Nicotina, to double the chromosome number and to harvest seed from homozygous diploid plants just within five months.
Production of somatic hybrids from attached to plasmid vectors into naked plant protoplast.
K A Barton , W J Brill and J H Dodds Bengochea
Insertion of foreign genes attached to plasmid vectors into naked plant protoplast.
M D Chilton
Production of transformed tobacco plants following single cell transformation or gene insertion.