Care & Management of Cow (animal) before during and After Parturation (Calving)
Even though the Parturation is normal physiological process, it requires to take due care at all stages of Parturation by manager of the herd.
Turning cow into a loose box: To isolate from other animals, animal of advance pregnancy must be separated into calving box which must be cleaned & properly disinfected, bedded with clean, soft & absorbent litter
Guarding Against Milk Fever: In advanced pregnancy stage high yielding & first calvers are susceptible to Milk fever. To avoid it, provide enough minerals especially calcium by bone meal in daily diet. Give large doses of Vit. D about a week period to calving.
Avoid Milking: Prior to parturation which is likely to delay parturation by few hours.
Watch for parturation signs: Signs to know primary stage of parturation which are udder becomes large, dislended, herd, depressed or hollow appearance on either side of tail head, vulva enlarged in size, thick mucus discharge from valva, and uneasiness of the animal.
Dilation Phase: Consists of the acts Le down & get ups, uneasiness due to labour pain, observe these acts from safe distance without making disturbances to animal.
Parturation period: In normal case period is of 2-3 hrs while in first calving 4-5 hrs or more Observe from safe distance without disturbing the animal.
Watch for presentation of Calf: The phase of expulsion of foetus, observe the appearance of water bag & its gradual emergence, bursting of it and appearance of fore feet with hoof & mouth.
Normal presentation: Any deviation from normal presentation of calf occurs; the immediate help of veterinarian should be taken being care of Dystokia.
Expulsion of placenta / after birth: The placenta is discharged within 5-6 hrs. After calving in normal case while if not discharged within 6-7 hrs. Get the help of veterinarian and treat as per requirement.
Supply Luke-warm drinking water to cow.
When placenta expelled, prevent cow from eating.
The placenta should be properly disposed off by burying in ground.
Clean cow’s body with clean & warm water with antiseptic.
Supply moistened bran with crude sugar or molasses.
Care with regard to milking of cow:
After Parturation when first milking, ensure that all blockages from teats removed.
Cow may be milked three times a day until the inflammation disappears from the udder.
Provide enough minerals i.e. calcium & phosphorus through diet & do not milk fully at a "time to avoid milk fever in high yielding cows
Care with regards to feeding:
Types of feeds provided – milk laxative, palatable &c nutritious.
Suitable feeds – Wheat bran, oats, and linseed oil seeds.
DCP & TDN of ration must be 16-18% & 70% respectively.
40-60 gms. Sterilized bone meal & 40 gm common salt may be adder’, to grains.
Succulent green, palatable fodders containing 50-60% legumes are suitable while amount concentrates should be increased gradually in three weeks.