Classification of Forests
Forests can be classified on the basis of:
2. Method of regeneration,
5. Object of Management,
6. Growing Stock.
1. Classification of Forest On the Basis of Age: Forest is classified into:
A) Even Aged Forest:
Even-aged forests, also called regular forests are those consisting of even – aged woods. Even – aged wood means trees of approximately the same age. True even – aged forests can be only man – made forests. In case of forests, which regenerate naturally, some age difference is often allowed. Differences up to 25% of the rotation are usually allowed in cases where forest is not harvested for 100 years or more.
B) Un-Even Aged Forests:
A forest is called uneven – aged or irregular when trees vary widely in age.
2. Classification of Forest On the Basis of Regeneration: Forests are identified into
A. High Forest: When regeneration is obtained from seed
B. Coppice Forest: When regeneration is through coppice or some vegetative part of the tree.
1. Natural Forest: When the regeneration is obtained naturally, the forests are called natural forests
2.Man Made Forest: When it is obtained artificially, the forests are called Man-made forests or Plantations.
3. Classification of Forest On the Basis of Composition: Forests are classified into
A. Pure Forests: Pure forests are composed almost entirely ofo ne species, usually to the extent of not less than 50 pe cent.
B. Mixed Forests: Mixed forests are defined as forest composed of trees of two or more species intermingled in the same canopy.
4. Classification of Forest On the Basis of Management: Forests are classified into
A. Protection Forests: Protection forests are those which are managed primarily for ameliorating climate, checking soil erosion and floods, conserving soil and water, regulating stream flow and increasing water yields and exerting other beneficial influences.
B. Production Forests: Production forests are those which are managed primarily for their produce.
C. Social Forests: Social forests where the produce is utilised by neighbouring society.
5. Classification of Forest On the Basis of Ownership: Forests can be classified as
A. Government Forests:
On the basis of Legal status, Government forests are further classified into:
a. Reserved Forests: A Reserved forest is an area with complete protection, constituted according to chapter II of the Indian Forests Act. 1927.
b. Protected Forests: A Protected forest is an area subject to limited degree of protection constituted under the provisions of chapter IV of the Indian Forest Act., 1927.
c. Village Forests: A Village forest is a state forest assigned to a village community under the provisions of chapter III of Indian Forest Act.
B. Private Forests
C. Forests owned by Corporations, Panchayats, Societies and other Agencies.
6. Classification of Forest On the Basis of Growing Stock: A forest can be classified into
A. Normal Forest: A Normal forest is an ideal forest with regard to growing stock, age class distribution and increment and from which the annual or periodic removal of produce equals to the increment and can be continued indefinitely without endangering future yields.
B. Abnormal Forest: Abnormal forest is one which is not normal, i.e. growing stock, age, class, distribution of stems, increment, etc. are either in excess or more usually in dificit than the normal forest.