Classification of Nursery for Forestry
Nurseries are classified either on the basis of irrigation facilitates or the duration of their use. On the basis of irrigation facilities nurseries are classified into:
a) Dry Nursery: It is a nursery that is maintained without any irrigation or other artificial watering.
b) Wet Nursery: It is nursery that is maintained by irrigation or other artificial watering during the dry period.
Nurseries are classified into grades according to their duration of time. These are as follows.
a) Temporary Nursery and
b) Permanent Nursery.
a) Temporary Nursery:
Both because of remoteness and relatively small requirements, much of early plantation development in the tropics on the base on temporary nurseries. The temporary is located near or within a planting area on flat ground where soil is workable and water supply is available or it may be rained.
It is nursery that is maintained for supplying nursery stock for short period after which it is obandoned (closed) normally. It is also referred to as formed in of adjoining the planting area. As it is intended to meet the requirement of limited area, it is usually small in size.
Advantages of Temporary Nursery:
1. Nearness to the planting site improves survival because transit time between nursery and plantation is short and plants suffer less from transporting shock due to vibration on long journey.
2. Transport cost of bulky container plant is much reduced.
3. The capital investment needed is low.
4. Due to isolation the spread of disease and pest checked.-
5. It is usually made in clear site; fairly rich in humus and therefore does not require any manuring.
Disadvantage of Temporary Nursery:
As it is made in rocky places, proper growth is not possible in the absence of irrigation facility, the growth of seedlings is usually slow and there is usually heavy mortality. It is relatively costlier to maintain as compare to permanent nursery.
b) Permanent Nursery:
It is a nursery, meant for supplying nursery stock for a long time on permanent basis. The duration of service life of permanent nursery is long and it is maintained till seedling can be raised in it at reasonable cost. As it is intended to meet the requirement of one or more different types, it is relatively larger in extend area. It is usually made in a central place in a range near the head quarter or some subordinate’s quarters for proper supervision. It should be on, or near some road for quick transport of nursery stock. As plants are raised year after year for long time, its initial fertility dwindles and it has to be manure regularly. It has facilitated for irrigation and shading of plants.
Advantages of Permanent Nursery:
1. The site is carefully selected. The soil is easily workable sandy loom and virtually free of weed seed. Hence seedlings can be produced year after year.
2. Staff lives near the nursery in permanent housing which results better care and supervision.
3. The concentration of capital investment enables to purchase of modern Silvicultural aids, cultivation and irrigation equipment, sprayers to control pest, diseases and weeds etc.
4. High production, high survival and good quality make for efficient operations and consequently low unit costs per seedlings.
5. Centralized operations permit easier planning, maintenance of record and stock control, which allows better forecasting of production costs.
Disadvantages of Permanent Nursery:
Cost on construction of building and layout is more and spread of diseases and pest not checked properly. There is considerable damage to the nursery plants
Various Kinds of Nurseries:
Extension Nurseries are used on a small scale to produce the seedlings for the supply of community people at low cost for planting under Social Forestry program mainly the Kisan Nursery and School Nursery fall under this category.
i) Kisan Nursery: Kisan Nursery is that nursery which is owned by a farmer or Kisan on his farm. He receives seeds and polyethylene bags from the forest department and raises the seedlings in the month of May June so-that the seedlings are ready for planting in the month of July-August. The fast growing tree species for fuel and fodder for Agro-forestry and Social forestry are raised by the farmer and the forestry department assures to purchase the lot with certain benefit to farmer.
ii) School Nursery: Like Kisan Nursery the schools and institutions also, raised the seedlings to be supply-to the social forestry department for plantation, these nurseries are called as School or College nursery.