Classification Of Watershed
Classification of watershed:
1. Macro watershed: 400 to 2000 ha.
2. Micro watershed: Less than 400 ha.
i) Sub watershed: 10,000 to 50,000 ha.
ii)Multiwatershed : 1000 to 10,000 ha.
iii) Micro watershed: 100 to 1000 ha.
iv) Miniwatershed: 1 to 100 ha.
Water shed Development Concept:
Watershed development refers to the conservation, regeneration and judicious utilization of all the resources viz. land, water, vegetation, animal and human within a particular watershed in integrated manner. Watershed development seeks to bring about an optimum equilibrium in the ecosystem between natural resources man and animals.
In the past, watershed development programme was aimed at mainly on the treatment of catchments for preventing situation in reservoirs. 8Xthe aim of the watershed development in present contest is quite different. It includes the improvement in productivity of dry lands through the components like
i) Crop management
ii) Soil and moisture conservation
iii) Water harvesting &
iv) Alternate land use system.
In the past full potential of new technology could not be exploited as these components were implemented in piece meal. Now, this is possible due to implementation of all there components in integrated manner in each hydrological unit of watershed.
Components of watershed development:
Following are the general items of watershed development which are required to be excuted in the catchments area depending upon the prevailing situation.
1. Soil and land management
i) Interceptor drains.
iii) Graded bunding
iv) Bench terracing
v) Interbund vegetative barriers
vi) Grass Waterways.
vii) Improvement of ill drained soils
viii) Nala training / improvement.
2. Water Harvesting Structures:
i) Nala bunding
ii) Farm ponds
iii) Percolation tanks
iv) Minor irrigation tanks
v) Stop dams in nalas
vi) Underground diaphragms.
3. Afforestation cum pasture development for rural energy and forage for animals:
i) On private marginal and culturable waste lands.
ii) On community and Government forest lands.
4. Agricultural development:
i) Selection of crops and their varieties suitable for local soil and climatic situation.
ii) Adoption of appropriate cropping system.
iii) Contour farming.
iv) Strip cropping.
v) Mulching and crop residue management.
vi) Adoption of alternate land use system depending on land capability such as Alley Cropping, Agro – horticulture, silvipastural management, dryland horticulture, tree farming, and pasture management.