The value of weather elements are modified by the interference of the factors of determining causes like latitude, altitude, etc. Such factors are called as climatic factors of climatic controls.
The most important influence of latitude is on temperature of a place Temperature tends to decrease with increase with increase in latitude. Places far away from the equator are colder than those near it. This is because the angle of the Sun’s rays decreases as we go to higher latitudes and also the rays have to pass through a greater distance of the atmosphere before they strike the earth’s surface. They have therefore less heating effect than the rays falling on the equatorial region.
2 Altitude: Pressure and temperature generally decreases with increase altitude, and the capacity of the air to hold moisture also decreases.
Wind velocity primarily changes with change in topography which may result in Change in temperature
High mountain chains fact as a barrier to free flow of winds and divide one type of climatic zone from another. For example moist monsoon current of the Indian sub-continent is not allowed by the Himalayas to crossing into our country in winter.
5. Land and sea distribution:
Distribution of land and sea has a profound effect on climate. Places near the sea have moderate climate. On the other hand places for away from the sea are very hot in summer and very cold in winter. So they are said to have an extreme climate.
6. Oscan currents:
Ocean currents have a considerable influence on the climate of the coastal regions and Islands near which they flow. The warm currents tend to raise the temperature of the place while the cold currents make a place colder.