Climatic Zones of Horticultural Crops
Climate is one of the important complex factors which influence the fruit production. It includes several basic environmental conditions such as temperature, rain fall, humidity, and lights. Fruits growing zones are based on the climatic factors. These zones are tropical, sub- tropical, temperate and arid zone. However, there are certain to exceptions to this, e.g. grape can be grown in temperate and sub tropical regions, while papaya can be grown in tropical and sub- tropical condition.
1. Temperate Fruits:
This class of fruits grown successfully in cold regions where temperature falls below freezing point during winters. During the cold season, the trees, sheds their leaves and goes into rest period. For breaking this rest period, a definite chilling period is required. This class of fruits includes fruits like apple, pear, walnut, almond, plum, peaches, strawberry etc.
2. Tropical Fruits:
This class includes fruit crops which are unable to endure cool temperature. Some of them are being severally injured by even the temperature somewhat above the freezing point. This class of fruits required hot and humid climate in a summer and mild winter. This class includes only evergreens such as mango, Sapota, papaya, cashew, pineapple, banana etc.
3. Sub Tropical Fruits:
This class includes fruit crops intermediate in character to tropical and temperate. These fruits grown mostly In plains where the climate is hot, comparatively dry and winter less severe. This class of fruits include fruits lie citrus, phalsa, fig, guava, and pomegranate.
4. Arid Zones:
Besides these zones, the arid region has extreme climatic conditions. In arid zones rain is very greatly low and its distribution is erratic leading to low plats stand and productivity. To make it still more bad, the water storage capacity of soils in these areas is very low, being mainly poor textured and shallow soils, and is compared with high evaporative losses.
The Arid Fruit Crops can be Grouped in Two Categories:
i. Deep rooted and short flowering and fruit set on the commitment of the monsoon and complete apple fruit development before the soil moisture stress, such crops are custard apple, ber tamarind, anola, marking nut etc.
ii. Fruits, flowering starts after rainy season and harvesting will be during summer season, such crops are very handy. Ex. Mango, Beal, jamun, phalsa, wood apple, charoli, cashew nut, jackfruit, kokum, karvanda, mulberry, etc.