Climatologically Approach For Crop Planning In Rained Areas
Agriculture production in India is closely related with rainfall India. About 75% of total cropped area is rained. Crop product on area is very uncertain due to erratic behavior of rainfall. The main for very low and highly unstable yields in these areas is unavailability adequate soil moisture occurring active growth period of crops. The moisture stress can be mitigated if it is followed by good rainfall. How prolonged stress period affects the rinal crop production. There are reasons for low productivity but primary constraint to this is lacs suitable tautology for soil and water management.
A sustainable farming system needs management strategies with respect varietals selection soil fertility programs and pest management agricultures order to reduce the input cost and provide a sustained avel of production profit from farming.
For planning an efficient agricultural production system information weather and climate is vital and also a major resource for agriculture productivity and sustainability especially in a stressed environment considering the complete macroclimate system. It is necessary to develop farming systems that are sensitive to climate and weather sustainable and to susceptible to degradation on account of climate.
In some areas the total rainfall is sufficient for one good crop and the some cases for two good crops in a year. However the rainfall distribution in root profiles some times exceeds and percolation of water to deeper layer or ground water recharge takes place. Because of the uncertainties and ever present risk of droughts the farmers are generally reluctant to adopt the use of available high yielding varieties, fertilizers and other input management which will effectively conserve and utilize soil and water.
Weather plays an important role in crop production, more so in India where 75% of the cultivated area is rained. The effective cropping season in rainy season is restricted by both rainfall quantity and distribution, thereby setting limits on choice of crops, cultivars and cropping systems. For post rainy season crops grown on conserved soil moisture, it is moisture storage at sowing time that determines the choice of crops and cultivars.
Crop growth rate at different ptenophases, length of growing season, efficiency of PAR interception, efficiency of solar energy conversion, efficiency in biomass conversion are explained to quantity the impact of evicemental parameters on growth and development of crops. However in arid and semi – arid areas water use plays a dominant role in crop production.
In many arid and semi arid areas crop production problems follow a familiar sequence:
i) Unfavorable crop growth environment:-
i) Limited choice of crops and cultivars, particularly in water deficit environments and aberrant weather situation.
iii) Low crop intensity.
iii) Low and onstable productivity.
Water deficits are responsible for low and unstable crop yields in both arid and semi arid areas. In addition, environment stresses / or nutrient stress may make the water deficit environment more unfavorable for the growth. The crops and cultivars currently popular in dryland areas are in necessarily the most stable and efficient in terms of moisture use. Many the existing cultivars of sorghum, pearl millet, pigeon pea, groundnut sunflower, castor and other crops are not adapted to rainfall pattern when they are grown for effective cropping season. The usually experience drogue stress at the most critical stages of their life cycle, which leads to low at unecrowic yield. In order to achieve yield stability it is necessary to ground crops and cultivars with water requirement patterns that watch the effective growing season.