Components of Sprinkler Irrigation System

Components of Sprinkler Irrigation System

1. Prime mover/pump suction pipe, foot value:

Pumping sets or pump is required for lifting water from the source and push it through distribution system i.e. main, sub main, laterals and finally through the sprinkler head under sufficient pressure.

The pumping set consists of a centrifugal pump (volume) or turbine type pump with a driving unit suction line and a foot value. Centrifugal pump are generally used where the lift is less than 5m i.e. when source is river, shallow well etc. for higher lift or if water level fluctuates widely turbine pumps are recommended.

The electric motors are generally used driving unit for fixed installation diesel engines are generally recommended for portable units.

2. Main line:

It carries water from the source (pumping unit) to the various parts in the field. It may fixed or portable. Permanent lines are generally buried below the working depth inside the ground. Light weight aluminum pipe with quick couples are preferred for portable lines something HDPF (high density pipes are also preferred because of its longer life. The fixed are generally of steel pipe or PVC pipe of suitable diameter). Te or L section is provided to connect the main with sub main or lateral.

3. Sub main:

It carries water from main to lateral lines.

4. Lateral Lines:

It carries water from main or sub main pipe line to the sprinkler head through the rise pipe. They are portable and equipped with quick coupling devices. Commonly they are available in 5,6 or 12m length are provided with U shaped rubber gasket in the female portion of coupling. The water pressure forces outside of ‘U’ gaskets to form water seal when the water is turned off the seal is broken and water is drained out from the pipe making it easy to uncouple and more.

Sprinkler head:

Sprinkler heads are used for spraying water on the fields they may be-
a) Rotating Head
b) Fixed head Type
c) Perforated Type

Fixed Head Type: Used in landscape

Sprinkler lead can be classified on basis of pressure

1)  Low operating pressure sprinkler (1.5 to 2.5kg/cm2)
2)  Intermediate pressure sprinkler (2.5 to 5kg/cm2)
3)  High pressure sprinkler (5 to 10kg/cm2)


Find the fertilizer does per settings of the sprinkler system if a lateral has 12 sprinkler 14m apart. Later lines are spaced 20m on the main line and the recommend does of fertilizer is 80kg/ha.

             Ds x DL X Ns X WP
WF   = ———————

             14 X 20 X 12 X 80
DL 20 = ——————–


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