Crop Rotation and Its Characteristics
Refers to recurrent succession of crop on the same piece of land either in a year or over a longer period of time. Component crops are so chosen so that soil health is not impaired. E.g. cotton- gram, sugarcane- wheat. Or it means growing a set of crop in a regular succession on a piece of land in a specific period of time, with an object to get maximum profit least investment without impairing soil fertility.
E.g. sorghum- gram, groundnut- wheat.
Characteristics of Good Crop Rotation:
1. It should be adaptable to the existing soil, climatic and economic factors.
2. The sequence cropping adopted for any specific area should be based on proper land utilization or it should be so arranged in relation to fields that crop yields can be maintained and also build up organic matter content of the soil.
3. Rotation should contain sufficient area under soil improving crops (legumes) to maintain and also build up organic matter content of the soil.
4. In areas where legumes can be grown successfully, the rotation should provide sufficient average of legumes to maintain “N” supply of the soil.
5. It should provide food grains, pulses, oilseed etc. to family and roughages, fodder to cattle.
6. It should help in control of pests, diseases, and weeds.
7. It should provide maximum area under the most profitable crops adapted to the area.
8. It should be so arranged to make for economy in production and labour utilization.