Cropping Pattern and Efficient Cropping System
It is the pattern of crops for a given piece of land or cropping pattern means the proportion of area under various crops at a point of time in a unit area or it indicated the yearly sequence and spatial arrangements of crops and follows in an area.
Land resources being limited emphasis have to be placed for increasing production from unit area of land in a year.
Cropping systems based on climate soil and water availability have to be evolved for realizing the potential production levels through efficient use of availability use of available resources. The cropping system should provide enough food for the family, fodder for cattle and generate sufficient cash income for domestic and cultivation expenses. This objective could be achieved by adopting intensive cropping. Methods of intensive cropping include multiple cropping and intercropping. Intensive cropping may pose some practical difficulties such as shorter turn- around time lapse for land preparation before the succeeding crop and labour shortage at peak agricultural activities. These problems can be overcome by making modification in the cropping techniques. Alteration in crop geometry may help to accommodate intercrops without losing the base crop production.
Efficient Cropping Systems:
Efficient cropping systems for a particular farm depend on farm resources, farm enterprises and farm technology because farm is an organized economical unit. The farm resources include land, labour, water, capital and infrastructure. When land is limited intensive cropping is adapted to fully utilized available water and labour when sufficient and cheap labour is available, vegetable crops are also included in the cropping systems as they required more labour. Capital intensive crop like sugarcane, banana, turmeric etc. find a space in the cropping system when capital is not a constraint. In low rainfall regions (750 mm/annum) mono cropping is followed and when rainfall is more than 750 mm, intercropping is practiced, with sufficient irrigation water, triple and quadruple cropping is adopted, when other climatic factors are not limiting farm enterprise like daring, poultry etc. also influenced the type of cropping system. When the farm enterprises include dairy, cropping system should contain fodder crops as components change in cropping system take place with the developments of technology. The feasibility of growing for crop sequences in Genetic alluvial plains inputs to multiple cropping.