Cultivation of Berseem or Egyptain Clover
Local Name : Bersim gavat
Family : Leguminoceae
Botanical Name : Trifolium alexandrium
Origin : Egypt
Economic Uses of Berseem:
1. Berseem is leguminous fodder crop and provide proteins and other minerals to animals.
2. It can be fed as green, dry and in silage form.
3. It is very palatable and mostly fed as green fodder to milch animals.
4. It adds atomospheric ‘N’ is soil which get available to succeeding crop.
5. It improves the soil structure.
Varieties of Berseem:
i) Diploid – Meskawi
ii) Tetraploid – Pusa giant
Ecological Requirement for Cultivation of Berseem:
A) Climatic Requirement for Cultivation of Berseem:
1. Berseem requires cool temperatures specially during germination and early growth period.
B) Soil Requirement for Cultivation of Berseem:
1. It requires well drained medium to heavy soils.
2. It can be growth in alkaline soil but not grown in acidic and water logginh soils.
Cultural Methods in Berseem Cultivation:
1. Land is deep ploughed and three harrowing are given across the slope.
2. Flat beds are prepared and sowing is done in it.
3. Berseem is generally sown by broadcasting in beds and mixing seeds with soil.
4. AS be seem seed is small and hence before sowing it is mixed with fine san in 1:1 proportion for even sowing.
5. Seed rate is 10 to 15 kg/ha.
6. It is sown from 15th October to 15th November.
7. Two hand weeding are given at 30 days interval.
8. 20 – 25 tons FYM and 50kg P2O5/ha. is added before last harrowing.
9. After sowing first two light irrigations are given so that seed does not collect at one side of bed and subsequent irrigations are given at 15 to 20 days in winter and 10 to 12 days in summer.
Harvesting (cutting) in Berseem Cultivation:
1. First cutting is available 50 to 60 days after sowing.
2. Other cuttings are obtained at about 40 days interval before flowering.
3. In all 4 to 5 cuttings are obtained upto mid of May.
Yield in Berseem Cultivation:
Av. Yield of Berseem is about 20 to 25 tons green fodder/ha.