Cultivation of Cucumber or Kakdi (Cvcitmis sativus)
Cvcitmis sativus L
Kakdi-Maraihi; Kakkari-Malayalam; Kamal Kakdi-Hindi.
Cucumber is an important summer vegetable commonly grown throughout India. Cucumber plant, as creeperm has a climbing or trailing habit The tender fruits are eaten raw or with salt in salad. They are also used as cooked vegetable. It is reported that the oil exacted from seeds is good for brain and body. Drinking of water immediately after eating cucumber should be avoided, as it sometimes causes sever indigestion.
The cucumber is a warm season crop and grows best at a temperature between 180C and 240C. It does not withstand even light frost. Soil and its preparation :Cucumber can be grown in all types of soil from sandy to heavy soils. Loam, silt loam and clay loam soils are considered best fro getting higher yield. Soil pH between 5.5 and 6.7 is favorable for its cultivation. The land should be prepared thoroughly sowing of seeds.
a) Sowing Time:
The cucumber is cultivated both as a summer and rainy season crop and the seed is sown according to type of crop.
Summer Crop : January to February.
Rainy crop: June-July.
The seed of cucumber is sown in April in the hills.
b) Seed Rate:
The seed rate is 2.5 to 4 kg/ha.
c) Method of Sowing:
The seed is sown by dibbling method at a distance of 1.5 to 2.5 meters (row to row) x 60 to 90 cm. (Plant to plant). Two to three seeds are sown in each pit. Layout in Ring & basing method.
30 to 50 cartload well decomposed FYM should be added at the time of soil preparation. 50 kg N, 25 kg P/ha. Should be given ½ N and full phosphorus should be given at the time of sowing seeds and remaining half N should be given 30 days after sowing.
Shallow cultivation should be given during the early stages of growth to control the weeds. Herbicides (such as Glycophosphate, Paraquat and Chloramben @ gm per acre) may be used to control weeds.
The summer crop cultivated as an irrigated crop requires enough soil moisture during its growth and development.’ So irrigation should be given as and when needed. No irrigation is given in rainy season crop.
The rail grown tender fruits should be harvested at an interval of two to fora-days. Timely picking is more important in regard to quality. Yield: The average yield is about 60 to 15 quintals/ha,
Japanes Long green, Balam Khira Peons, priya, Pusa Snajog, Cucumber (Cucumis sativus).
Developed by selection from the cross Poinsett x Kalyanpur Ageti and released in 1992. Fruits are white in colour, 12-15 cm long and resistant to bronzing. Total duration is 100-110 days. Average yield is 158 quintals per hectare.(MPKV, Rahuri)
2. Phule Shubhangi:
It is released by MPKV, Rahuri. Green skin colour. It is tolerant to powdery mildew. It yields more than vars. Poona Khira and Himangi. Besides it is released through State Variety Release Committee of Maharashtra. It is also notified by the Central Sub Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Varietal Release at the National level.(MPKV, Rahuri)
3. Phule Prachi:
It is agynoecious F hybrid developed by exploiting a parthenocarpic tropical gynoecious female parent. It is suited to the tropical conditions. Performs well under both the open field and green house conditions. Responds well to the improved agro-techniques like high fertilization, drip irrigation, fertigation, staking etc. Fruit skin is yellowish white in colour suitable to the consumers’ preference of Maharashtra. Gives very high yield (average of 18 trials is 359 q/ha i.e. 85% higher than check). Fruits are straight and longer. Fruits are set parthenocarpically. It gives more than 1 000 quintals per hectare yield under staking cum spacing (30 cm x 30 cm) conditions and about 750 quintals per hectare under naturally ventilated green house. (MPKV, Rahuri)
It gives about 250 – 300 quintals per hectare fruits. They are green, cylindrical and long with good keeping quality. Suitable for both the kharif and summer seasons. It also does well in high rainfall areas. It is released for commercial cultivation in Konkan region. Average weight is 200-250 g per fruit. It gives son an average yield of 30Q-350 quintals per hectare. (BSKKV, Dapoli)
5. Phule Champa:
K is a gynoecious fi hybrid suited to the tropical conditions. It is recommended for the open field as well as green house conditions. It has high yield potential. Average yield is 378 quintals per hectare. Fruits are light green in colour, straight and longer. Suitable for all over the country. (MPKV, Rahuri).