Cultivation of Garlic (Allium sativum)
Botanical Name: Allium sativum L.
Garlic is one of the important bulb crops. It is used as a spice or condiment through India. The compound bulb of garlic consists of several small bulblets or cloves. Garlic is generally cultivated in A. P, U.P, Madras and Gujarat.
Composition and Use:
Garlic has been considered as a rich source of Carbohydrates, proteins Phosphorus. Garlic contains allin. Its principle ingredient is diallyl disulfide. It contains volatile oil. Garlic helps indigestion. It reduces cholesterol in human blood.
Climate and Season:
It grows under a wide range of climatic conditions. However. It cannot stand too hot or cold weather. It prefers a moderate temperature in summer as well as in winter extremely hot and long days are not conductive are not conductive to proper bulb, short days are very favorable for the formation of bulbs. It can be grown well at elevations, of 1000 to 1300 meters above sea- level. In India it is cultivated in Madras, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat (Rajkot division).
Soil and Planting Time:
According to Rao and Purewal (1957) and joshi (1961), garlic requires medium black to well drainder loamy soils rich in humus, with fairly good content of potash. The crop raised on sandy or loose soil does not keep for long and the bulbs too are lighter in weight. In heavy soils, the bulbs produced are deformed, and during harvesting, many bulbs are broken buril so they do not keep well in storage. They get discolored in badly drained soils.
Seed Rate and Time of Sowing:
In garlic seed rate is 315 to 500 cloves per ha. It taken in rabi season and summer season. Crop is planted from August- Novemeber.
Layout and Spacing:
Ridges and furrow type of layout is follow. Spacing is given.
Fawari, Rajli gaddi, G-41, Selection – 2, Selection – 10, Garlic 9 Allium Sativum):
Developed by selection from Jamnagar collection and released in 1987. Bulbs are pink in colour and medium in size with 25- 30 cloves per bulb. It is tolerate to eriophyte mites. Duration is 130- 140 days. Duration is 130- 140 days. Average yield is 150 quintal per hectare.
Sweta is developed by selection from a local germplasm collected from Gujarat and released in 1987. Bulbs are medium in size with 20-25 cloves per bulb of white colour. Duration is 120- 130 days. Average yield is 130 quintals per hectare.
Manures and Fertilizer:
25 to 30 cart load of well rotten FYM or Compost applied at the time soil preparation per hectare. In garlic according PKV, Akola recommendation 50 kg N, 50 Kg P2o5 and 50 kg K2O should be applied. A side dressing of 50 kg n may be given one month after sowing.
First Interculture is given with hand or khurpi one month after the sowing. Second weeding is given one month after the first weeding and hoeing. According to Joshi (1961 ). Hoeing, the crop just before the formation of bulbs about 2 ½ months from sowing) looseness the soil and helps in the setting of bigger and well filled bulbs. The crop should not be weeded out or hoed at a letter stage because this may damage the stem and impair the keeping quality of sprouting and the cloves already formed.
First irrigation is given after sowing and then field is irrigated after every 10 to 15 days till the season warms up. At this stage more frequent irrigation are required. There should be no scarcity moisture in the growing season; otherwise the development of the bulbs will be checked. When the bulbs are matured then irrigation should be given sparingly. The last irrigation should be given 2 -3 days before harvesting for making it easy without damaging the bulbs.
Garlic is crop of 4 ½ to 5 months duration. When the leaves start Turing yellowish or brownish and show signs of drying up (usually about a month or so for the emergence of seed stalks, the crop is ready for harvest. The plants are then pulled out or uprooted with a country plough and are tied into small bundles, which are then kept in the filed or in the whade for 2- 3 days for curing and drying so that the bulbs become hard and their keeping quality is prolonged. The bulbs may be started by handling them on bamboo sticks or by keeping them on dry sand on the floor in a well ventilated room on dry floor.
In garlic 50 to 70 quintals / ha yield is obtained.