Cultivation of Pea (Pisum sativum)
Pisum sativum L.
Pea is an important vegetable in India; the crop is generally cultivated for its green pods. It is highly nutritive and is rich in protein. It is used as a vegetable or in soup, canned frozen or dehydrate. It is cooked as a vegetable along or with potatoes. Split grains of pea are widely used for dal. Pea straw is a nutritious fodder.
Pea is a cool season crop and performs best at 10 0C to 18 0 C. The flower and young pods are badly affected by frost. The germination of seeds takes place at 3.3 0 c soil temperature. Boswell (1920) reported that as the temperature increases during the growing season the yield decline sharply. The optimum mean monthly temperature for pea is 12.8 0 C to 18 0 C.
Sowing of Time:
a) Sowing Time:
The tea is generally sown in India in Rabi season from the beginning of October to mid of November in the plains and from middle of March to end of May in the hills. Sowing of seed during the first week of November is proper time to get higher yield.
b) Seed Rate:
The optimum seed rate is 25 to 30 kg/ha.
C) Method of Sowing:
The pea is generally sown by broad casting. But it may also be sown by dibbling or behind the plough. The seeds are soaked in water overnight before sowing for better germination. Seeds treated with Rhizium culture culture give higher yield. Pal Sodkar et al. (1974) reported with soaking of seeds in G. A 10 ppm for 12 hour gave the highest germination and yield.
Layout and Spacing:
Flat bed layout is used. Spacing is 45 X 20 cm.
30 to 50 cartload should be applied at the time of soil preparation. 25 kg N, 50 kg P and 50 kg k/ha should be applied ½ dose or full dose P and K should be applied at the sowing. Remaining half nitrogen applied one month after sowing.
a) Trailing and Staking:
This is an important operation to be done when vines were about two month old and are at spreading stage. Generally the plants should be supported on bamboo sticks. Delay in this operation will reduce the yield considerably.
b) Weed Control:
it is very difficult to control the weeds of pea filed by mechanical methods as the crops are sown in rows in closed spacing. Uses of herbicides have been proved very such effective. Atrazine, propazine and simazine at 0.54 kg per acre gave good broad leaf weed control and late control of wild oats damage the peas. Prometryne @ 400 gm per acre was most effective in improving vegetative growth and yield of pods.
Water requirement of pulse crops are higher than cereals. The water requirement of pea depends largely on Agronomic condition of the locality. The crop may be irrigated at both 10 days interval. Where rainfall is low, peas irrigation is very necessary at flowering and grain development stage.
Peas are harvested for table use when the pods are will fill and the young tender peas changing in colour from dark to light green. Peas may be picked in 45 to 60 days, 75 days and 100 days according to early. Mid season and late. Airtimes respectively, 3 to 4 pickling are done within the interval of 2 to 10 days. Fresh unshielded peas may be kept two at 0 C and 90- 95 percent relative humidity.
The yield of per hectare varies according to the variety:
25 to 40 Quintals.
Mid Season and Late:
50 to 60 Quintals.
Varieties according to their period of maturity.
Early Bejar, Arket.
Mid season Variety: