Cultivation of Reddish (Raphanus Sativus)
Raphanus Sativus L.
Among the root crops carrot and radish are the important crops grown in the state. Radish is a popular vegetable in both tropical and temperature regions. Radish is a good source of vitamin C contains 15 – 40 mg per 100g of of edible portion and supplies varieties of mineral. The leaves of radish are a good source of extraction of proteins on a commercial scale.
Radish is grown for its tender tuberous roots which are eaten raw salad or 8cooked as vegetable. The leaves of radish are also cooked as vegetable. Root, leaves, flower and pods are active against gram- positive bacteria. The roots are said to be useful in ruminary complains and piles. Radish is annual or biennial depending on purpose for which it is sown.
Radish is best adapted to cool or moderate climate. Tropical varieties can adopt high temperature but to develop good flavor texture lower temperature between 15- 25 0 C is required initially 20 and 23 0 temperature is required. During hot weather the toots become tough and plough and pungent before reaching edible size. However, pungency is also a varietal character.
Radish can be grown n all types of soil but best results are obtained on light, friable loam soil that contains samplehunus. For early crop sandy or sandy loam soils are preferred. Usually heavy soils produce rough, misshapen roots with a number of small lateral and such soils should be avoided. High yields are obtained on heavy soils.
The soil should be thoroughly prepared and no clods or under decomposed manures should left in the soil. The clods interfere in the development in the roots. So bring soil to a fume tilth before sowing is undertaken.
Sowing and Seed Treatment:
The radish crop can be sown on ridges and furrows or on flat beds too. The distance between ridges and furrows or on flat beds depends upon variety.
The temperate varieties and early varieties are sown at a closer spacing. Radish can be sown from July- January. However, all varieties of radish may not perform well in all the months. During hot weather or in rainy season tropical varieties can be grown. The tropical varieties sown after November wilt bolt. The radishes are also sown in Kharif season but the root gives good is inferior. Radish is sown on ridges and furrows opened at 45 cm distance and seeds dibbled at 8 to 10 cm in row. Surface sowing or sowing at depth of 2- 3 cm is advisable for proper germination. On flat beds sowing at 15 X 15 cm can be followed. 8 -10 kg of seed required for one hectare area.
Manuring and Fertilizer:
To obtain good yield of excellent quality roots, judicious application of manures and fertilizers is recommended. Radish is a short duration crop. Do not apply fresh and unrecompensed manure in the field as it results in forking and mis- sharpen roots. Application of 50 kg Nitrogen, 25 kg Phosphorus is recommended by PKV, Akola. Half of the dose of nitrogen applied is 20- 30 days after sowing.
Radish requires steady and continuous supply of soil moisture for better root growth. This also helps in production of tender and attractive root growth. At the time of sowing there should be sufficient moisture. So irrigate field before sowing. In dry weather frequent irrigation are necessary. Water stress makes roots rough and pungent. In winter season irrigation at interval of 6-8 days are given.
As it is sown at closer spacing, weeding is difficult hence soil should be well prepared. After sowing regular stage of crop growth is essential. In radish roots there is tendency to bulge out of the soil therefore cover roots by earthling up.
Depending upon varieties roots become ready for harvesting in 40- 45 days after sowing. Early rapid maturing varieties become ready for harvesting even at 25- 30 days of sowing. Harvesting radish at proper stage of maturity. Delay in harvesting result in pithiness and bitterness in radish roots.
Given light irrigation before harvesting to facilitate easy pulling of roots, the roots along with leaves easy pulling of roots. The roots along with leaves are washed cleaned and tied in bunches.
Average yield of radish varies from 100 to 180 quintals per hectare. However, some cultivars also yield. 400- 500 quintal per hectare. Yield of temperature varieties is less.