Livestock Production and Management – agriinfo.in https://agriinfo.in Sun, 14 Apr 2019 13:11:12 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.1.1 Scope and Trends of Livestock in Indian Economy https://agriinfo.in/scope-and-trends-of-livestock-in-indian-economy-86/ https://agriinfo.in/scope-and-trends-of-livestock-in-indian-economy-86/#respond Mon, 16 Apr 2018 18:28:49 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2016/08/06/scope-and-trends-of-livestock-in-indian-economy/ Scope of Livestock in Indian Economy Livestock Census, Trends in Livestock Production Livestock production performance has been more impressive than that of food grain production. Milk, egg, meat, and fish showed impressive growth rates of 5to10%.The minimum targeted growth rate for attaining self sufficiency in milk, fish, meat and egg by 2001 AD are 5.54, […]

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Scope of Livestock in Indian Economy Livestock Census, Trends in Livestock Production

Livestock production performance has been more impressive than that of food grain production. Milk, egg, meat, and fish showed impressive growth rates of 5to10%.The minimum targeted growth rate for attaining self sufficiency in milk, fish, meat and egg by 2001 AD are 5.54, 6.25, and 5.54 % per annum respectively.
Livestock represents the only way in which the natural vegetation that covers large parts of India can be converted in to products that can be used by man. It provides drought power and manure to the crop enterprise and this in turn provides feed and fodder. The value of out put from the livestock sector was Rupees 79684 crores in 1994-95 which was 9.3% the Total (GDP).

Fortunately India is blessed with a tremendous livestock wealth. It has the largest population of cattle and buffalo in the world and its breeds are admired for heat tolerance and inherent resistance to diseases and ability to thrive under different climatic condition.
The cattle population of India is very large. According 1991 census the cattle population was estimated at 467.9 million this comprised of 203.1 million catties, 83.1 million buffaloes 50.7million sheep, 115.3 million goats and 12.1 million pigs. The others were estimated at 3.6 million. The poultry population constituted a 400 million.

Milk production:

India ranks first with the average milk production of 78 million tons per annum. This has been the achievement of 70 million dairy farmers and also through the striated efforts of the animal husbandry practices, cattle cross breeding projects and cooperative dairy farming. It is worthwhile to mention that the per capita availability of milk to the lacto vegetarian Indians is estimated at 214 grams per day. It has been the only source of sufficient energy, minerals, vitamins and animal proteins. A 60% of the total milk production enters in. to the market in the form of dahi, butter, ghee, khoa and shrikhand. Besides this the conventional dairy products including milk powder, Ice cream and cheese are also manufactured. During last 20 years the supply f milk has been possible in sufficient quantities through the pasteurization plants and chilling units.

Animal draught power:

The bullock pair may be regarded as the backbone of Indian Agriculture. Though the animal draught power does not relate with human nutrition directly. Indirectly it contributes in the production of food grains; the renowned draught animals (cattle and buffaloes) include Khillar, Amrit mahal, Hallikar, Red kandhari, Ongole, Malvi, Rathi, Nagore, Neman, Hariyana, Gir, and Deoni. There are about 86 million draft animals, which comprise of 76 million bullocks. 8 million buffaloes, 1 million camels and donkeys. The horsepower obtained from 1 bullock is equivalent 0.75 H.P.
Mechanization in Agriculture has been to the tune of 20% only. Whereas 80% of the agriculture/farm operations are done by bullock drawn .implements. It is estimated that 40,000 mega watts, of Energy (Traction power) is made available through the use of draft animals and the value of this has been estimated Rs. 5000/- crores.

Meat production:


Flesh foods are rich in protein and are good sources of vitamin B12 which is absent in plant food. India’s meat production is hardly 2% (4.08 million tons) of the global meat production 209.31 million tons in 1995. Out of total meat produce in India 54% is from mutton and chevon, 26% from beef 13% from chicken and 7% from pork. Even though 70% of India’s populations consume meat the per capita availability of meat is less than 5 kg per year. As compared to worlds average of 14 kg per year
Broiler production in India is recent one rearing poultry for meat purposes started only in seventies, but the growth is significant Broiler production which was only 4 million in 1971 increased to around 215 million in 1991.
The poultry industry has achieved a spectacular growth during last thirty years. The 24’billion eggs produced in 1991 represented 13 fold increase compared to 1951.
With the annual production of 27 billion eggs (1995-96) India stands fifth in world. The government has promoted the poultry development through intensive poultry development project (IPDP) launched in third five years plan, (1969-74). Improved breeds like RIR, WLH and Australia. The per capita availability of eggs in India is only 30 per annum as against the ICMR recommendation of 180 per year.

Fish production:

Fish is a cheap source of animal protein and a good source of calcium. The fish production of India has risen to 4.95 million tons in 1995-96. The per capita availability of fish in 1996 was 5.4 kg whereas the ICMR recommendation for total meat including fish is 10.95 kg per annum.

Farm yard manure for organic farming:

A minimum of 10-20 kg dung is obtained on an average from every cow or buffalo. This is an excellent source of F.Y.M. or compost manure. This is badly needed to improve the inherent soil fertility, and to have the extended manorial effect on the crops parts. Dung cakes are utilized as a source of fuel in rural parts of India. It is estimated that 640 million tons of cow dung is being utilized to meet the house hold fuel requirements. Besides the cow dung, goat extreta, and poultry dropping can also be better utilized for organic manure.

Present Trends:

As a result of various dairy development programmers the country is having presently 233 processing plants and 46 milk products factories. The cooperative public sector plants and organized private plants have an estimated handling capacity of 8.65 million liters per day (MLPD). Various cattle improvement project have been-started in 600 community blocks. The country has now 122 intensive cattle development programmes (ICDP) 140 cattle breeding farms, 40 Exotic cattle farms and 48 frozen semen banks in operation. These activities has resulted in enhancing the milk production by 494.11% in the past three decades although increase in breedable cows and buffaloes 22-23% during the same period.
Through a net work of over 4200C milk producers cooperative organized under the operation floot. Programme, a National milch grid has been successfully established. This grid covers besides the four-metropolitan cities. Nearly 200 cities and towns
The fallen and slaughtered cattle and buffaloes also contribute hides and skins, bones and hooves etc. The hides and skins, from cattle and buffalo are estimated at 0.82 million tons annually.

Employment generation:

Animal Husbandry & Dairying may be regarded as a source to create the employment in rural areas all round the year. Indian Agriculture is mainly dependent on monsoon and hence agriculture field faces certain bottlenecks to provide employment during such periods. On an average Agriculture sector may provide 200 days employment to the rural persons. This means they have to find alternate source of employment for income during the rest of the year. Dairy farming, sheep and goat rearing, poultry production, pig farming rabbit rearing are the alternate sources of mix farming. It may be possible to generate the employment for the farmers as well as land less laborers who can do this job themselves, or it may be possible to employ young and the old family persons as a side business. Many of the operations in Animal Husbandry and Poultry Farming can be done by the rural women. It is estimated that on an average 35 million human years/annum employment generation has been potential through this sector.

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System of Calf Rearing https://agriinfo.in/system-of-calf-rearing-92/ https://agriinfo.in/system-of-calf-rearing-92/#respond Tue, 27 Mar 2018 09:56:22 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2016/12/08/system-of-calf-rearing/ System of Calf Rearing 1. Sucking method: In this method, the calf is allowed to stay with its mother and allowed to suckle only a little before and after of milking the cow. The calf gets whole milk throughout lactation. Advantages: i) This is natural system of feeding. ii) The calf gets contamination free milk. […]

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System of Calf Rearing

1. Sucking method:

In this method, the calf is allowed to stay with its mother and allowed to suckle only a little before and after of milking the cow. The calf gets whole milk throughout lactation.

Advantages:

i) This is natural system of feeding.
ii) The calf gets contamination free milk.
iii) No much care is required to take during feeding.
iv) The mother-calf affection developed.

Disadvantages
:

i) If calf dies, the cow refuses to let the milk.
ii) It can not be ascertained about over feed or under feeding of the calf.
iii) If milk is infected the infection may be to calf.
iv) The actual quantity of milk yield of cow can not be calculated.
v) The post partum heat is late.

2. Weaning method:

In this system, the calf is taken away from its mother either just after the birth or after 2-3 days of birth, sometimes it is allowed till the period of colostrum feeding. After that, the calf rearing is entirely by isolation system.

The immediate step, after weaning of the calf is to teach it to drink milk is very important

  1. Nipple system: Used for 3-4 days-aged calves. A pail containing milk equipped with rubber nipple used which the calf sucks.

  2. Hand fiddling: When the calf develops appetite insert two fingers of right hand into the mouth while holding milk in left hand at convenient height for the calf. While calf suckles the fingers, the muzzle is gradually pressed down into milk pan. This way calf learns to drink milk.

Advantage:

i) Cow continues to give milk whether calf is alive or not.
ii) The calf can be culled at an early stage.
iii) It can be fed scientifically as per requirements no problem of under feeding and over feeding.
iv) The actual amount of milk produced by cow can be determined.
v) Milking without calf is more hygienic & sanitary.
vi) Cow becomes regular breeder; the calving interval is less than the unweaned calves.

3. Milk feeding schedule to the calf:

The calf after weaning from the Jam, it should be fed with the whole milk, skim milk and re-constituted milk and also calf starters in gradual age. The temperature of the milk must be body temp. I.e. 39°C, the utensils used must be clean and sterilized; the milk should be fed twice a daily.

Body weight (kg)

Calf age (days)

Colostrums (lire. Per body wt.)

Whole milk (liters per body weight)

Skim milk (liters per body wt.)

Upto25

Upto5

1/10th

20-30

6 – 20

1/ 10th

25-50

21-30

l/15th

1/20th

30-60  

31-60

l/20th

l/25th

40-75

61-100

l/25th

 l/25th

Calf Starters:

It is mixture of grain protein feeds, minerals, vitamins & antibiotics.  It has been evolved for use with limited whole milk.  An ideal calf starter contains 20% DCP, & 70% TDN.
If the calves raised with calf starter, the schedule is:

Age(day)

Whole Milk (Kg)

Skim Milk (Kg)

Calf Starter in Kgs.

0-5

Colostrum

6-7

2.75

8-14

3.25

15-21

2.75

1.00

0.10

22-28

1.75

2.00

0.20

29-34

1.00

3.00

0.30

35-42

0.50

3.50

0.50

43-56

3.50

0.75

57-84

2.50

1.00

85-112

0.50

1.25

113-140

1.75

141-182 (up to 6 months)

2.00

 

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Poultry Housing https://agriinfo.in/poultry-housing-101/ https://agriinfo.in/poultry-housing-101/#respond Tue, 13 Mar 2018 06:27:53 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/05/16/poultry-housing/ Poultry Housing Poultry is housed for comfort protection, efficient production and convenience of the poultry man. Essentials of Good Housing: Comfort: The best egg production is secured from birds that are comfortable and happy. To be comfortable a house must provide adequate accommodation; be reasonably cool in summer, free-from draft and sufficiently warm during the […]

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Poultry Housing

Poultry is housed for comfort protection, efficient production and convenience of the poultry man.

Essentials of Good Housing:

Comfort: The best egg production is secured from birds that are comfortable and happy. To be comfortable a house must provide adequate accommodation; be reasonably cool in summer, free-from draft and sufficiently warm during the winter provides adequate supply of fresh air and sunshine; and remain always dry. Given these the hen responds excellently.

Protection: Includes safeguards against theft and attack from natural enemies of the birds such as the fox, dog, cat kite, crow, snake, etc. The birds also should be protected against external parasites like ticks, lice and mites.

Convenience: The house should be located at a convenient place, and the equipment so arranged as to allow cleaning and other necessary operations as required.

Location of Poultry House:

In planning a poultry house, the location should be taken into consideration. In selecting site for poultry houses the following factors should be considered.

  1. Relation to other building: The poultry house should not be close to the home as to create unsanitary conditions. On the other hand it should not be too far away either because this will require more time in going to and for in caring for the birds. In general at least three trips should be made daily to the poultry house in feeding, watering, gathering the eggs, etc.

  2. Exposure: The poultry house should face south or east in moist localities. A southern exposure permits more sunlight in the house than any of the other possible exposures. An eastern exposure is almost as good as a southern one. Birds prefer morning sunlight to that of the afternoon. The birds are more active in the morning and will spend more time in the sunlight.

  3. Soil and drainage: If possible the poultry house should be placed on a sloping hillside rather than a hilltop or in the bottom of a valley. A sloping hillside provides good drainage and affords some protection. The type of soil is important if the birds are to be given a range. A fertile well drained soil is desired. This will be a sandy loam rather than a heavy clay soil. A fertile soil will grow good vegetation which is one of the main reasons for providing range. If the poultry house is located on flat poorly drained soil, the yards should be tiled otherwise the birds should be kept in total confinement.

  4. Shade and Protection: Shade and protection of the poultry house are just as desirable as for the home. Trees serve as a windbreak in the winter and for shade in the summer. They should be tall, with no low limbs. Low shrubbery is no good as in their presence the soil becomes contaminated under the shrubbery, remains damp/ and sunlight cannot reach it to destroy the di ease germs. One thing we should remember that plenty of sun shines should be available at the site.

 

Housing requirements:

Floor space: The smaller the house the more square feet are required for each hen. Bigger pens have more actual usable floor space per bird than smaller pens. The recommend at as suggested might be useful regarding floor, feeders and watering space.

For economic production of laying hens it is always better to keep them in small unit of 15 to 25 birds. This number can go up to a maximum limit of 250 birds. In commercial poultry farms units of 125 or so are advisable. Where there is a long house, partitioning at every 20 feet should be made to eliminate drafts, etc.

Ventilation: Ventilation in the poultry house is necessary to provide the birds with fresh air and to carry off moisture. Since the fowl is a small animal with a rapid metabolism its air requirements per unit of body is high in comparison with that of other animals. A hen weighing 2 kg and on full feed, produces about 52 liters of CO2 every 24 hours. Since CO2 content of expired air is about 3.5 per cent, total air breathed amounts to 0.5 liter per kg live weight per minute. A house that is a tall enough for the attendant to more around comfortably will supply far more air space than will be required by the bird’s that can be accommodated in the given floor space.

Temperature: Hens need a moderate temperature of 50°F to 70°F. Birds need warmer temperature at night, when they are inactive, than during the day.  The use of insulation with straw pack or other materials, not only keeps the house. Warmer during the winter months but cooler during the summer months Cross ventilation also aids in keeping the house comfortable during hot weather.

Dryness: Absolute dry conditions inside a poultry house is always ideal condition dampness causes discomfort to the birds and also gives rise to the diseases like colds, pneumonic etc. Dampness in poultry house caused by:  (1) moisture rising through the floor; (2) leaky roofs or walls; (3) rain or snow entering through the windows; (4) leaky water containers; (5) exhalation of birds.

Light: Daylight in the house is desirable for the comfort of the birds. They seem more contented on bright sunny days than in dark, cloudy weather. Sunlight in the poultry house is desirable not only because of the destruction of disease germs and for supplying vitamin-D but also because it brightens the house and makes the birds happy. Birds do fairly well when kept under artificial lights.

Sanitations: The worst enemies of the birds, i.e., lice, ticks, fleas and mites are abundant in poultry houses. They not only transmit diseases but also retard growth and laying capacity. The design of the house should be such which admits easy cleaning and spraying. There should be minimum cracks and crevices. Angle irons for the frame and cement asbestos or metal sheets for the roof and walls are ideal construction materials, as they permit effective disinfection of the house. When wood is to be used, every piece should be treated with coaltar, cresol, or similar strong insecticides before being fitted.

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Care of Heifer https://agriinfo.in/care-of-heifer-93/ https://agriinfo.in/care-of-heifer-93/#respond Thu, 08 Mar 2018 22:08:17 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2017/02/18/care-of-heifer/ Care of Heifer Heifers-can be reared by two methods: i) Outdoor system/grazing method. ii} Indoor system. i) Outdoor system: The heifers are reared mainly on grazing. The following are management points in this system: They should be shifted daily from one grazing land to another. Pasture plots be grazed rotationally containing legume grass. Grazing land […]

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Care of Heifer

Heifers-can be reared by two methods:

i) Outdoor system/grazing method.
ii} Indoor system.

i) Outdoor system:

The heifers are reared mainly on grazing. The following are management points in this system:

  1. They should be shifted daily from one grazing land to another.

  2. Pasture plots be grazed rotationally containing legume grass.

  3. Grazing land must have provision of shade & supply of cool drinking water.

  4. Concentrates and minerals may be fed through troughs located in the field.

ii) Indoor system:

In this system, they are confined by compound and provided with shelter. The main points to be considered in this system are;

  1. Feedings: They should be provided with good quality of hay or roughages &    concentrates or grains. The feed must be rich in nutrients like proteins, energy, minerals, and vitamins.

  2. Housing: The heifers from 6 months onwards should be housed separately from suckling calves and no male calves be kept together beyond 6 months.  For better allocation of resting area, calf should be provided with below stated space,

 i.e. 20- 5 sq.ft/calf for below 3 months of age
       25-30 sq.ft from 3-6 months of age
       30-40 sq.ft from 6-12 months of age
       40-50 sq.ft from above one year

  1. Exercise: In this system, the care is to be taken that they should get sufficient exercise which removes stiffness in limbs, -keep thrifty growing & maintain normal appetite.

  2. Culling of heifers: Those having anatomical defects, bad deposition, poor growth & late maturity should be culled.

  3. Control of parasites:

    • De-worming of heifers:  Worms interfere with absorption of food nutrients ultimately interfere with host’s growth, therefore heifers be de-wormed after every 4-6 months.

    • Control of Ectoparasites: Ectoparasites like ticks, lice etc. should be treated to control such parasites by dipping or spraying with 0.5% BHC or other insecticides like 1% Malathion spray is effective. The regular grooming is also helpful.

  4. Vaccination of heifers: At 6 months of age, heifer should be vaccinated for & Mouth disease, T.B. & Rinderpest diseases. While older heifer should be vaccinated for Anthrax, Black quarter.

  5. Age of Breeding: Many factors affect the age of breeding i.e. Breed, system of feeding, and quality of nutrition. Under average manage mental conditions of feeding & care, the heifers attaining weight of 200 kg (minimum) may be considered of age at first breeding.

  6. Steaming up: A pregnant heifer few days prior to calving must be fed liberally is called steaming up.   It is done for the reasons that, heifer continues to grow, she has to bear an unborn viable calf, and she must maintain her good health during lactation period.   For steaming up heifers must be given 1.5 kg concentrate mixture.

  7. “Breaking-in” heifers:

    • Care in training heifers: Heifer should be handled with kindness. They should be trained to load with halter from an early age, which helps to make docile cow.

    • Housing pregnant heifer with milch herd: This practice to heifers should start about a month prior to Calving to accustom them their place in barn.

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Animal Health Cover https://agriinfo.in/animal-health-cover-103/ https://agriinfo.in/animal-health-cover-103/#respond Fri, 16 Feb 2018 17:12:05 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2016/10/29/animal-health-cover/ Animal Health Cover Herd health programme that emphasize prevention of disease, rather than treatment play a central role in any attempt to increase production efficiency. Treatment will always be important in terms of survival of the individual sick animal. However in terms of survival of the total production unit (profit verses Loss) prevention is the […]

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Animal Health Cover

Herd health programme that emphasize prevention of disease, rather than treatment play a central role in any attempt to increase production efficiency. Treatment will always be important in terms of survival of the individual sick animal. However in terms of survival of the total production unit (profit verses Loss) prevention is the more desirable method of disease control. Individual animal treatment should be viewed as a salvage operation since it occurs after varying amounts of production have already been lost. Under present economic conditions the proverb "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure" is truer than ever before. The selection of drugs and prescription should be left to the discretion of the dairy manager in consultation with his veterinarian.

Health denotes physical, physiological and mental wellbeing of an individual.

Disease means any deviation from normal state of health.

Classification of Diseases:

A. According to mode of origin

  1. Hereditary diseases: are transmitted from parents to the offspring.

  2. Congenital diseases: are acquired during intra-uterine life.

  3. Acquired diseases: are acquired after birth.

B. According to specific causes:

a) Specific diseases: are produced by a specific pathogen or factor. They are subdivided into

i) Infectious diseases:
are caused by pathogenic organisms

Viral diseases: Rinderpest (RP), Foot & Mouth disease (HMD)
Bacterial diseases: Black quarter (BQ), Haemorrhagie septicemia (HS)
Protozoan diseases: Surra, Thieleriosis.

ii) Non-infectious diseases: are caused by physical or chemical or Poisonous agents, nutritional deficiency or disturbed metabolism.
E.g.

  1. Deficiency diseases – Rickets.

  2. Metabolic diseases – Milk fever

  3. Poisoning – Pesticide poisoning

b) Non-specific disease: those diseases whose causes are indefinite or multiple e.g. Pneumonia

C. According to mode of spread: 

  1. Contagious disease: sprout by means of direct or indirect contact, e.g. FMD; HS All infections discuses may or may not be contagious but all contagious dieses are injections.

  2. Non-contagious diseases: do not spread by means of direct or indirect contact. E.g. Rickets.

D According to clinical signs: 

  1. Preacute disease is characterized by very short course (few hours to 48 hours) and very server symptoms e.g. Anthrax,

  2. Acute disease is characterized by a sudden onset, short course (3-14 days) and severe symptoms e.g. FMD, RP.

  3. Subacutc disease: whose course is 1-4 weeks and severity is less than acute one. E.g. Sub acute mastitis

  4. Chronic disease: whose course is more than 4 weeks and signs are not severe in character e.g. Tuberculosis

E. According lo intensity and spread of diseases: 

  1. Sporadic disease: affects one or f-o animals and shows little or no tendency to spread within the herd e.g. Johne’s disease.

  2. Enzootic/Endemic disease: means are outbreak of disease among animals in a   definite area or particular district. E.g. Anthrax, H.S.

  3. Epizootic/Epidemic disease: which assets a large population of animals in large area at the same time and spread with rapidity e.g. FMP, RP.

  4. Panzootic /Pandemic disease: is a widespread epidemic disease usual of world wide distribution e.g. Influenza

  5. Zoonotic disease: a disease which can be transmitted from animal to man and vice versa e.g. Anthrax, Brucellosis.

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Clean Milk Production https://agriinfo.in/clean-milk-production-118/ https://agriinfo.in/clean-milk-production-118/#respond Sat, 10 Feb 2018 08:01:24 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2018/04/14/clean-milk-production/ Clean Milk Production Pre-requisites for Good Milking: Milking is the key operation on a dairy farm; it depends on the income derived. Any amount of scientific feeding or possession of high yielding cows will not help if the milking is inefficient. Milking is an art requiring experience and skill. Milking should be conducted gently, quietly, […]

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Clean Milk Production

Pre-requisites for Good Milking:

Milking is the key operation on a dairy farm; it depends on the income derived. Any amount of scientific feeding or possession of high yielding cows will not help if the milking is inefficient.

Milking is an art requiring experience and skill. Milking should be conducted gently, quietly, quickly, cleanly and completely. Cows remaining comfortable yield more milk than a roughly handled and excited cow. Maintenance of clean condition in the milking barn results both in better udder health and production of milk that remains wholesome for longer time. The act of milking should be finished within 5 to 7 minutes, so that the udder can be emptied completely so long as the effect of oxytocin is available. Complete milking has to be done, lest the residual milk may act an inducer for mastitis causing organisms and the overall yield may also be less.

Preparation for Milking:

The milking barn should be thoroughly washed and scrubbed after each milking so that the barn will be clean and dry, before the subsequent milking is commenced. No dusty feed should be fed during milking. The hind quarters and thighs of cows should be brushed, and washed if lot of filth-is accumulating on them. Buffaloes should invariably be washed during summer; during severe winter brushing should be resorted to. Just before milking (after suckling by calf, if weaning is not practiced) the udder should be wiped with a cloth dipped and squeezed in some weak antiseptic solution. In winter the cloth may be dipped in warm antiseptic solution.

A part from cleanliness of cows and their udders, the milkers as well as the milking pails should be clean. The milkers should wear clean dress and cover (heir heads with suitable caps, lest loose hairs may fall in milk. Their nails should be well trimmed and their hands clean and disinfected between each milking by washing in antiseptic solution. Milkers obviously ill and having filthy habits like spilling, blowing nose etc. should not be used.

After each milking the milking pails should first be washed with warm water, scrubbed well using suitable dairy sanitizer and then rinsed well with clean cold water. Afterwards, they should be stacked neatly in racks -upside down, until next milking. Milking cans should also be treated similarly. Sanitary milking pails with dome-shaped top should be used instead of open buckets or vessels. A milk strainer should invariably be used before milk of each animal is poured into the milking can.

Pay attention to the routine of milking operations. Milch animals are sensitive animals. They get accustomed to certain routines and any sudden change in the routine will disturb them resulting in reduced yield. Experienced milkers should be put on first calver cows while/novices should first be tried on older cows. An ideal proposition is to rotate milkers among a group of cows so that the cows will get accustomed to all. Also milk cows at the same home every day. Any change in timing of milking or even change in ration should be brought about gradually.

Milking Procedure:

In India hand milking of cows is still the most common practice. Cow’s arc milked from left side. The order of milking the various teals also differs. Tents may be milked cross wise or for equareters together and then hind quarters together or teats appearing most distended milked first. The milk must be squeezed and not dragged out of teats. The first few strips of milk from each teat should be let on to a strip cup to see clues in milk for possible incidence of mastitis. This also helps in getting rid of bacteria which have gained access and collected in the teat canal.

Stripping and full-hand milking are the two commonly used methods of milking. Stripping consists of firmly seizing the teat at its base between the thumb and forefinger and drawing them down the entire length of the teat pressing it simultaneously to cause the milk to flow down in a stream. The process is repealed in quick succession. Both hands may be used, each holding different teat, stripping alternately.

The full hand method comprises of holding the whole teat in the first finger encircling the teat. The base of the teat is closed in the ring formed by the thumb and forefinger so that milk trapped in the lent sinus may not slip bad-, into the gland eastern. .Simultaneously, teal is squeezed between the middle, ring and little fingers and the hollow of palm, thus, forcing the milk out. This process should be repeated in quick succession. By maintaining a quick succession of alternate compressions and relaxations the alternate streams of milk from the two teats sound like one continuous stream. Many milkers tend to bend their thumb in, against the teat while milking. This practice should be-avoided as it injures the teat tissues.

Full hand milking removes milk quicker than stripping, because of no loss of time in changing the position of the hand, Cows with large teats and she-buffaloes are milked by full-hand method; but stripping has to be adopted for cows with smaller teats for obvious reasons, Full-hand method is superior to stripping as it simulates the natural suckling process by calf. Stripping causes more irritation to teats due to repeated sliding of fingers on teats; and so discomfort to cows. In spite of these drawbacks when all milk that is available is drawn out by full-hand method, stripping should be resorted to with a view to milk the animal completely; the last drawn milk is called stripping and is richer in fat.

In India, milkers are mostly accustomed to meet hand milking. They moisten their figures with milk, water or even saliva, while milking. This should be avoided for the sake of cleanliness. Wet-hand milking makes the teats look harsh and dry chafes, cracks and sores appear which are painful to animal. The hands should be perfectly dry while milking.

When cracks and sores are noticed on teats, some antiseptic ointment or cream should be smeared over them after milking.

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Parturation in animals https://agriinfo.in/parturation-in-animals-124/ https://agriinfo.in/parturation-in-animals-124/#respond Wed, 17 Jan 2018 15:53:48 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2017/10/18/parturation-in-animals/ Parturation Definition: Parturation is the expulsion of the foetus and its membranes from the uterus through the birth canal by natural forces and in such a state of development that the foetus is capable of independent life or in brief it is process of giving birth to a young one. This process of cattle is […]

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Parturation

Definition:

Parturation is the expulsion of the foetus and its membranes from the uterus through the birth canal by natural forces and in such a state of development that the foetus is capable of independent life or in brief it is process of giving birth to a young one.

This process of cattle is called ‘calving’. It is an absolutely normal physiological process.

Causes of Parturation:

The exact cause of Parturation is still a mystery but different prevalent views are there. These are summarized in brief as below:

A. Physical Factors:

  1. Progressive: increase in irritability of uterus: Increase in size of foetus towards the period of gestation-enhances the irritability & sensitivity of uterus resulting of reflex expulsion of foetus.

  2. Distension of Uterus: The action of extensive distension is followed by an equal & opposite reaction by uterus on foetus where it attempts to reduce to its original size thus expels the foetus.

  3. Infracts in Placenta: All full term infracts are noticed in the placenta due to distension & consequent pressure on arteries. The blood supply is diminished & placenta becomes sensible. The nutrition of foetus interfered with it and becomes anarchic gaps which stimulates respiratory centre & concentration of uterine started.

  4. Fatty degeneration in Placentas: During last stage of pregnancy, fatty degeneration of outer layer of placenta occurs resulting into separation of foetus. The foetus becomes foreign body & expelled out

 
B. Biochemical factors:

  1. Carbon dioxide tensions: Accumulation of CO2 in blood occurs due to metabolic activities of foetus which sets uterine contractions.

  2. Exciting substances: A full term foetus transmits certain substances to the maternal circulation due to insufficient nutrition. Believed to initiate Parturation.

  3. Antigen: An excessive quantity of foetal antigen enters the maternal blood sream towards the end of pregnancy which interacts with existing liberated substances by blood antigens & initiates labour.

 

C. Hormonal Factors:

In total complex process, the known and unknown hormones from pituitary, ovary, adrenal, placenta, foetus & uterus act in coordinated manner but at end the estrogen level increases than progesterone making release of oxytocin which in turn initiates the contractions of uterus.

D. Neural Factors:

There is no evidence that functional relationship of the intrinsic innervations of uterus to its activity during labour. It is independents of center nervous system.

Stages of Parturation:
 
The act of Parturation is a continuous process but for the sake of understanding, the process is explained in four stages as:

  1. The preliminary stage: Stage continuous for some hours to even days. External symptoms – swelling of udder, entire external genital organ becomes swollen & becomes reddish, clear, straw Coloured mucus secreted. The quarters droop/ slackening of muscles & ligaments of pelvic region. Behavior signs – animal looks for solitary place, cow feels uneasy, bellow and get excited.

  2. Dilation of Cervix Stage: This lasts for 30 minutes to 3 hrs. The uneasiness increases and followed by labour pain, animal show signs of pain in its abdomen. It may lie and rise again several times. Labour pains become more acute with short intervals. The pulse quickened, breathing distressed and rapid. The water bag7 appear at vulva followed by fore feet of young one. At this time cervix is fully dilated.

  3. Expulsion of foetus stage: It is period from complete dilation of the osuteri to the delivery of foetus. The back of cow arched, chest expanded, and muscles of abdomen became broad with each labour pain. At each contraction, water bag protrudes further from vulva till front hoof of young one is visible. Water bag bursts & fluid thrown off. When hoofs and nose are at genital, the head of calf is at pelvic which will have to pass through small pelvic opening; this moment is of supreme effort & greatest point of labour pain. At least, uterine contractions, combined with additional abdominal force on uterus, results in driving away the foetus through cervix, vagina & vulva.

  4. Expulsion of the after birth: After expulsion of calf, the uterus tends to throw out the placental membrane which is now merely a foreign body. As a result of uterine contraction, the placenta separates from the cotyledons & passes into the vagina, where from it is expelled. Early expulsion of placenta is desirable to avoid putrefaction causing infection of uterus. Expulsion within 6-8 hrs is normal, beyond that manual removal is advised.

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Care of Pregnant Animals https://agriinfo.in/care-of-pregnant-animals-95/ https://agriinfo.in/care-of-pregnant-animals-95/#respond Tue, 26 Dec 2017 20:28:08 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2016/10/18/care-of-pregnant-animals/ Care of Pregnant Animals The early singe or latter 1/3 period of the gestation   period   is important period in view of care and management. Feeding: It is necessary to provide adequate feeding to meet nutritional requirements of both mother and foetus. The challenge feeding (extra feeding) should be given from 5th month of pregnancy @ […]

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Care of Pregnant Animals

The early singe or latter 1/3 period of the gestation   period   is important period in view of care and management.

  • Feeding: It is necessary to provide adequate feeding to meet nutritional requirements of both mother and foetus. The challenge feeding (extra feeding) should be given from 5th month of pregnancy @ 1.25 – 1.75 kg of concentrate mixture and give 3.4 – 4.5 kg from 8th month onwards, over and above maintenance ration to Zebu and crossbred animals. Provide adequate clean water.

  • Drying of Cow:  The pregnant cow-should be dried above 60 days before expected dale of calving. To conserve the nutrients which are required for developing foetus & increased milk yield.

  • Housing: Pregnant animal approaching parturition should be isolated and kept in calving pen which should be clean, well ventilated, bedded and   disinfected. This helps   to   take   special   Care   regarding   feeding management, to avoid crowding, mounting by other animals, to avoid infection from oilier animals.

  • Care at expected Date: To know expected date of calving is a must to take care at time of parturition. Careful watch should be kept close to expected date of parturition. Do not interfere the normal act of calving. If there is dystokia provide time, veterinarian help.

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Terms Used in Poultry Production https://agriinfo.in/terms-used-in-poultry-production-89/ https://agriinfo.in/terms-used-in-poultry-production-89/#respond Fri, 15 Dec 2017 10:02:32 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2017/01/28/terms-used-in-poultry-production/ Terms Used in Poultry Production Hen: A matured female chicken generally above 20 weeks of age. Cock: A matured male chicken above 20 weeks of age. Pullet: A young female chicken from 9 to 20 weeks of age. Cockerel: A young male chicken from 5-8 months of age. Chick: A young male or female fowl […]

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Terms Used in Poultry Production

Hen: A matured female chicken generally above 20 weeks of age.

Cock: A matured male chicken above 20 weeks of age.

Pullet: A young female chicken from 9 to 20 weeks of age.

Cockerel:
A young male chicken from 5-8 months of age.

Chick: A young male or female fowl below S weeks of age.

Day-old chick: Hatched out chick is called as day-old-chick up to 24 hours.

Grower: A young chick of 9lh week of 20lh week of age of either sex.

Brood: A group of chicks of same age raised in one batch is called as a brood.

Brooding: The process of rearing the young chick from day old stage to 4 to 6 weeks of age during which, heat is to be provided to keep them warm.

Brooder: A device for providing artificial heat to the chicks.

Broiler: They are the hybrid chicks having rapid growth and attaining about 1.5 kg weight during the period of 6 weeks of age. Sold for table purpose within 8 to 10 weeks period. They possess a very tender and delicious meat.

Capon: It is a young male birds of which testicle are removed.

Layer: An egg laying female chicken up to one year after starting the laying of eggs.

Broody:
A hen which has stopped laying eggs temporarily.

Clutch: The number of eggs laid by a bird on consecutive days. A clutch of 3-4 eggs is preferred.

Moulting: The process of shading old feathers and growth of new feather in their place moulting normally occurs once in a year.

Culling: Removal of unwanted bird from the flock is known as culling e.g. old non-laying birds, sick birds and masculine hens are removed.

Pause: It is the period between two clutches in which eggs are not laid by hen.

Hen-day-production:
This is arrived by dividing total eggs laid in the season by the average number of birds in the house.

Hen-housed-average:
This is arrived at by dividing the total number of eggs laid in the season by the number of birds originally placed in the house.  No deductions are made for any losses from the flocks.

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Conventional Dairy Barn https://agriinfo.in/conventional-dairy-barn-100/ https://agriinfo.in/conventional-dairy-barn-100/#respond Thu, 14 Dec 2017 05:31:16 +0000 http://agriinfo.in/index.php/2017/12/10/conventional-dairy-barn/ Conventional Dairy Barn The conventional dairy barn is comparatively costly and is now becoming less popular day by day. However, by this system cattle are more protected from adverse climatic conditions. The following barns are generally needed for proper housing of different classes of dairy stock on the farm. Cow houses or sheds Calving box […]

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Conventional Dairy Barn

The conventional dairy barn is comparatively costly and is now becoming less popular day by day. However, by this system cattle are more protected from adverse climatic conditions.

The following barns are generally needed for proper housing of different classes of dairy stock on the farm.

  1. Cow houses or sheds

  2. Calving box

  3. Isolation box

  4. Sheds for young stocks

  5. Bull or bullock sheds.

Cow sheds:

Cow sheds can be arranged in a single row if the numbers of cows are. Small say less than 10 or in a double row if the herd is a large one. Ordinarily, not more than 80 to 100 cows should be placed in one building. In double row housing, the stable should be so arranged that the cows face out (tail to tail system) or face in (head to head system) as preferred.

Advantages of Tail to tail system:

  1. Under the average conditions, 125 to 150 man hours of labor are required per cow per year. Study of Time: Time motion studies in dairies showed that 15% of the expended time is spent in front of the cow, and 25% in other parts of the barn and the milk house, and 60% of the time is spent behind the cows. ‘Time spent at the back of the cows is 4 times more than, the time spent in front of them.

  2. In cleaning and milking the cows, the wide middle alley is of great advantage.

  3. Lesser danger of spread of diseases from animal to animal.

  4. Cows can always get more fresh air from outside.

  5. The head gowala can inspect a greater number of milkmen while milking. This is possible because milkmen will be milking on both sides of the head gowala.

  6. Any sort of minor disease or any change in the hind quarters of the animals can be detected quickly and even automatically.

Advantages of face to face system:

  1. Cows make a better showing for visitors when heads are together.

  2. The cows feel easier to get into their stalls.

  3. Sun rays shine in the gutter where they are needed most.

  4. Feeding of cows is easier; both rows can be fed without back tracking.

  5. It is better for narrow barns.

Floor: The inside floor of the barn should be of some impervious material which, can be easily kept clean and dry and is not slippery.  Paving with bricks can also serve ones purpose. Grooved cement concrete floor is still better. The surface of the cow shed should be laid with a gradient of 1" to 1 1/2 from manger to excreta channel. An overall floor space of 65 to 70 sq.ft. Per adult cow should be satisfactory.

Walls: The inside of the walls should have a smooth hard finish of cement, which will not allow any lodgement of dust and moisture. Corners should be round. For plains, dwarf walls about 4 to 5 feet in height and roofs supported by measonry work or iron pillars will be best or more suitable. The open space in between supporting pillars will serve for light and air circulation.

Roof: Roof of the barn may be of asbestos sheet or tiles. Corrugated iron sheets have the disadvantage of making extreme fluctuations in the inside temperature: of the barn in different seasons. However, iron sheets with aluminum painted. tops to reflect sunray bottoms provided with wooden insulated ceilings can also achieve the objectives. A height of 8 feet at the sides and 15 feet at the ridge will be sufficient to give the necessary air space to the cows An adult cow  requires at least about 800 cubic feet of air space under topical conditions. To make ventilation more effective continuous ridge ventilation is considered most desirable.

Stall design: The two main types of dairy barn stalls are the stanchion stall and tie stall.

1. The stanchion stall:

It is one of the standard dairy cow stalls.   It is equipped with a stanchion for fastening a cow in place.’   Usually there is a stall partition in the form of a curved pipe between the stalls to keep the cows in place and to protect their udders and teats from being stepped on by other cows.

The stanchion should be so contracted and arranged as to allow the cows the greatest possible freedom. There should be several links of chain at the top and bottom of the stanchions and sufficient room on each side of it to permit (lie animal to move its head from side to side. It is important to provide for the comfort of the cows and to line them up so that most of the droppings and urine go to the gutter. Practically, it is not possible to fit every cow to her stall properly. To compensate this, many stanchions have adjustments so that they can be set forward if the cow is too large for the stall or backwards if the cow is too small. The cow can be fastened easily and quickly with the stanchions and is held more closely in place than other types of ties. However/ she is held more rigidly and therefore, the stanchion is less comfortable than other types of fasteners.

2. The Tie Stall:

The tie stall requires a few inches longer and wider than the stanchion stall. It is designed to provide greater comfort to the cow. In addition to larger size, the chain tie gives the cow more freedom. Instead of the stanchion, there are two arches, one on each side of the neck of the cow. The cow is fastened by means of rings fitted loosely on the arch pipe,; and connected to a chain which snaps to the neck strap on the cow. The correct space between arches is 10-12 inches. This prevents the cow from moving too far forward in the stall. It is important that in this type of stall, the arches and all other stall parts are kept lower than the height of the cows.

The cow has more freedom in the tie stall then in the stanchion, large cows and those with large udders get along better in them because of freedom they enjoy. It is not desirable to have a tie chain in a small stall.

Manger:

Cement concrete continuous manger with removable partitions is the best from the point of view of durability and cleanliness, A height of l’-4" for a high front manger and 6" to 9" for a low front manger is considered sufficient low front mangers are more comfortable for cattle but high front mangers prevent feed wastage. The height at the back of the manger should be kept at 2′-6" to 3′. An overall width of 2′ to 2 W is sufficient for a good manger.

Alley:

The central walk should have a width of 5′-6′ exclusive of gutters when cows face out, and 4′-5′ when they face in. The feed alleys in case of a face out system should be 4′ wide, and the central walk should show a slope of 1" from the centre towards the two gutters naming parallel to each other, thus forming a crown at the centre.

Manure gutter:

The manure gutter should be wide enough to hold all dung without getting blocked, and be easy to clean. Suitable dimensions are 2′ width with a cross-fall of 1" away from standing. The gutter should have a gradient of 1" for every 10′ length. This wills permit a free flow of liquid excreta.

Doors: The doors of a single range cowshed should be 5′ wide with a height of 7′, and for double row shed the width should not be less than 8’-9’. All doors of the barn should lie flat against the external wall when fully open.

Calving Boxes:

Allowing cows to calve in the milking cowshed is highly undesirable and objectionable. It leads to in sanitary milk production and spread of disease like contagious abortion in the herd. Special accommodation in the form of loose-boxes enclosed from all sides with a door should be furnished to all parturient cows. It should have an area of about 100 to 150 sq. Ft With ample soft bedding. It should be provided with sufficient ventilation through windows and ridge vent.

Isolation Boxes:

Animals suffering from infectious diseases must be segregated soon from the rest of the herd. Loose boxes of about 150 sq. Ft are very suitable for this purpose. They should be situated at some distance from the other barns. Every isolation box ”should be self contained and should have separate connection to the drainage disposal system.

Sheds for young stocks:

Calves should never be accommodated with adult in the cow shed. The calf house must have provision for daylight ventilation and proper drainage. Damp and ill-drained floors cause respiratory trouble in calves to which they are susceptible. For an efficient management and housing, the young stock should be divided into three groups, viz., young calves aged up to one year, bull calves, i.e., the male calves over one year and the heifers or the female calves above one year. Each group should be sheltered in a separate calf house or calf shed. As far as possible the shed for the young calves should be quite close to the cowshed. Each calf shed should have an open paddock or exercise yard. An area of 100 square feet per head for a stock of 10 calves and an increase of 50 square feet for every additional calf will make a good paddock.

It is useful to classify the calves below one year into three age groups, viz., calves below the age of 3 months, 3-6 months old calves and those over 6 months for a better allocation of the resting area. An overall covered space of:

  1. 20-25 square feet per calf below the age of 3 months,

  2. 25-30 square feet per calf from the age of 3-6 months,

  3. 30-4O square feet per calf from the age of 6-12 months and over, and

  4. 40-50 square feet for every calf above one year,

Should be made available for sheltering such calves an air space of 400 to 500 cubic feet per calf is a good provision under our climatic conditions. A suitable interior lay-out of a calf shed will be to arrange the standing space along each side of a 4-feet wide central passage having a shallow gutter along its length on both sides. Provision of water through inside each calf shed and exercise yard should never be neglected.

Bull or Bullock shed:

Safety and ease in handling a comfortable shed for protection from weather and a provision for exercise are the key points while planning accommodation for bulls or bullocks. A bull should never be kept in confinement particularly on hard floors. Such a confinement without adequate exercise leads to overgrowth of the hoofs creating difficulty in mounting and loss in the breeding power of the bull.

A loose box with rough cement concrete floor about 15′ by 10′ in dimensions having an adequate arrangement of light and ventilation and an entrance 4′ in width and 7′ in height who make a comfortable housing for a bull. The shed should have a manger and a water trough. If possible, the arrangement should be such that water and feed can be served without actually entering the bull house. The bull should have a free access to an exercise yard provided with a strong fence or a boundary wall of about 2′ in height, i.e., too high for the bull to jump over. From the bull yard, the bull should be able to view the other animals of the herd so that it does not feel isolated. The exercise yard should also communicate with a service crate via a swing gate which saves the use of an attendant to bring the bull to the service crate.

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