Definition and Objects of Cropping Scheme
The paln according to which crops are grown on individual plots of a farm with an object of getting maximum return from cash crop without impairing the fertility of soil is known as cropping scheme.
Objects of Cropping Scheme:
Cropping scheme provides an idea before hand about the following:
i) What crop is to be cultivated in a farm.
ii) What amount of area is allotted for a particular crop?
iii) The relative claim for acreage of the competitive crop.
iv) Selection of crops as per the facilities available for power, irrigation, inputs, labour transport etc.
v) Utilization of inputs and other resources available on the farm without wastage.
vi) Preparation of budger for each crop.
Principal or Characteristics of a Good Cropping Scheme:
i) Area under Individual plots: The areas of individual plot for each crop should be approximately are same year after year. Unless price variation.
ii) Number of Plots: The number of plots should be equal to the duration or multiple of it. When the total duration of rotation in cropping scheme is 4, then the number of plots may be 4 or minimum of it. i.e 8, 12, 16 and so on.
iii) Selection of crops: Cropping Scheme is related to the profitable use of productive resources and management.
iv) Profitable crops: the rotation should be planted around most profitable around most profitable crops.
v) Meet the requirement: The cropping scheme should be so planned as to provide maintaence of soil fertility and other physical chemical properties.
vi) The scheme should have one leguminous crop in year in its rotation for the maintainace of soil fertility and other physical chemical properties.
Selection of Crops:
Selection of crops depends on the situation of the farm to obtain maximum profit.
a) Near a city: Farm is near the city, farmer should grown vegetable on at leat 60% of the net cultivable area remaining 10-15 % under fodder.
b) Near a sugar factory: 60% areas under sugarcane or under sugar beert remaining are on 60% area remaing area of orchards.
c) Near a canning factory: farmer should grow oil seed crops –g.nut, sunflowers.
d) Near dairy farm: The farmer should grow fodder crops. 10-15% area under oil seeds and pulses in order to supply concentrate to the dairy cattle along with fodder.
e) Near cold storage: Farmer should grow potatoes onion, vegetable, etc.
f) Near highway/ rain way station: Farmer can cultivable perishable crops like vegetables.
Those crops grown from February to May are called Zaid crops. Irrigation needs of these crops are usually higher than Kharif and rabi crops.
Example of cropping Scheme: Cropping scheme for a farm of 10 ha which is situated near a city and have all facilitate for intensive cropping, soil- sandy loan.
Net Cultivable area= 9 ha (10 % area under building & layout).
Total cropped area= 9+ 9 +9 = 27 ha cropping Intensity Index or CII.
Cropping intensity % = Total cropped area / Net cultivable area= 27 / 9 8 100 = 300%.
Calendar of Operation:
A graphic or tubular presentation showing the kinds of farm operations to be performed during the season and specified time limits within work most done.