Development Programmes of Forests in Five Year Plans
Development Programmes of Forests in Five Year Plans
As discussed, the advantage received to us is really valuable. It is therefore decided to promote forestry so that about 33% of area of our country will be under forestry. To achieve this target a strategy and approach of the 7th five year plan for the development of forests were fixed and following Programmes were initiated.
1. Conservation Forestry: In order to preserve and maintain the available forestry, on hill slopes, catchments of rivers and hills, canal banks, semi arid and arid tracts, efforts were made in this direction.
2. Social Forestry: The demand for fuel wood has grown faster than supply. The report of the fuel wood study committee 1982 has estimated that in order to meet the demand for fuel wood, it would necessary to raise fuel wood plantations at the rate of 1.5 millions hectares annually and distribute 800 million seedlings per year to the public. The centrally sponsored scheme of social forestry including rural fuel wood plantation was in 157 districts. During 7th five year plan it was extended to cover all fuel wood deficit area. In addition the state sector schemes of social forestry were also continued with external aid wherever feasible.
In a forestation programme the unit cost consists of three broad components viz.
Raising of seedling, including nursery management
Transportation cost from nursery to the field where plantation is to be undertaken and
Watch & ward.
Another peculiarity of this scheme is participation of different institutions, particularly co-operative institutions. The involvement of Gram Panchayat, poor villages and cultivators are also very important.
3. Production Forestry: So many productive units (industrial units) require a huge quantity forest wood. The figures given in following table describes the necessity forest wood for industry purpose.
Demand ( Million Metric Tones)
Production ( Yr. 1976)
Anticipated additional production
To bridge the gap it has been estimated that an area of 2 million hectares will have to be planted every year under the production of forestry during 7th plan period. As this required large capital investment, the National Commission on Agricu1ture (NCA) has recommended the setting up of state forest corporation so as to attract institutional finance. However, progress in this regard has been far from satisfactory (unsatisfactory).
4. Welfare of Tribal and Rural poor: In view of the symbiotic relationship between the tribal and the forests all efforts would be made to associated tribal in particular and other people living in around forests in general with the process of protection and crafts and also for the promotion of forest based cottage industries, training was imparted to the forest dwellers.
5. Minor Forest Produce: Apart from the major forest produce wood, we can obtain minor forest product from roots, barles, and leaves flowers, fruits etc. It has been estimated that 60% production of minor forest produce (MFP) is utilized by triblas and rural poor. Including medicinal plant the employment, generation and revenue from MFP is substantial. It was therefore decided in 7th Five year plan greater attention was provided on processing, marketing, grading etc. of MFP’s. It was also decided to triblas participation in development of forestry so that their earning could be increased.
6. Forests Research Education and Training: During the seventh plan period, forest research covered all aspects of forestry to ensure sustainable bio-mass production utilization and improvement user’s which safeguarding the ecosystem. Forest education and training was done with the primary focus on preparing the forestry personnel for regulatory functions of production management and rehabilitation of forests.
7. Data base Improvement: The data base, in respect of forestry is quite weak. Authentic, systematic and meaningful information is scarcity in respect of various forestry programmes. A rational forest policy and strategy of forest development requires that reliable information about location and content of the forests composition of the growing stock, growth losses, removals and extent of regeneration, including plantation in terms of species, area planted and net addition to the growing stock should be readily available.
8. Wild life: India has inherited a unique natural heritage of flora and fauna whose preservation is emphasized in the State policy.
The Indian Board for wild life has outlined the future strategy and action programmes for wild life conservation in the country in terms of the National wildlife Action Plan. This envisages establishment of a representative network of protected areas, management of protected areas and habitation restoration, wild life protection in multiple use areas, rehabilitation of endangered and threatened species, captive breeding programmes, wild life education and interpretation, research and monitoring a national conservation strategy and collaboration with voluntary bodies in the conservation effort.
9. People Participation: Peoples participation in forestry programme particularly special forestry is must for its success, the viable effective and operational model was evolved. Possibilities would be explored to entrust the implementation of some components and other run Government organizations.
10. National wasteland development board: More than half of the total land area of 328, million hectares was estimated to be in various Stages of degradation and approximately 50 million hectares was not being put to any productive use for different reasons. With a view to reversing trend of continuing deforestation a national waste land development board has been established during 7th plan. The board formulates within the overall national policy. Perspective plans and programmes for the management and development of the waste lands in the country through a massive programme of a forestation and tree planting. It is promoting & encouraging for development of waste lands brought the involvement of non-governmental organizations, (NGO) voluntary agencies and the public at large including the landless. In short people’s movement for a forestation would be developed.
11. Indian Council of forestry research & education: At percent there is a council of Forest Research and Education for providing direction and promoting forestry research and education in the country. The council functions as an advisory committee. It was proposed that the council for forests research of education should be organization the lines some what similar to the organization of ICAR, with adequate funds at its disposal and autonomy in it’s functioning, the ICFRE is now functioning as a umbrella organization for co-ordination and co-operation with the activities of state Govt. agencies, Universities, industries, ICAR, IIFM and other related institutes in the country.