Different Agronomical Practices for Soil and Water Conservation
Conservation In Rainfed Areas
Soil conservation is a preservation technique, in which deterioration of soil and its losses are conserved by using it within its capabilities and applying conservation techniques for protection as well as improvement of soil. In hilly regions. Where land topography has steep slope and is subjected to erosion problem the vegetation cannot get established. Lack of the vegetative cover on sloppy soil surface accelerates the erosion and a large amount of soil is transported into the stream through runoff. In addition, the uncovered sloppy land also a cause extensive damage to the cultivable land at foothill through exporsition of sedimentson them.Sediment disposition covers the top fertilesoil layerand thus makes them unsuitable for cultivation.
Under this circumstance it becomes very necessary to treat such areas by adopting appropriate agronomical measures, so that they can be reclothed with negetations. The vegetation helps in reducing the surface runoff and soil cravsion both. The agronomical measures include contouring strip cropping and niluge practices to control they soil erosion. The use of these measures is entirely dependent upon the soil types land shope and rainfall characteristics.
In soil and water conservation programmes, the agronomical practices are counted as second line of defense the first being mechanical or engineering measures which are employed to arrest the soil erosion immediately. The role of agronomic measure is more economical long-lasting and effective. Always it is advisable to used but when its use is either inadequate or not sulpewant to achieve the goal of erosion control then use of mechanical measures to control erosion is recommended.
The agronomical measures are referred by the practices of growing vegetables on mild sloppy lanks to cover them and to control the erosion from there in living vegetation above the soil surface dissipates the crove power of agents either they are water or wind In case of water erosion it affects by several ways such as by enhancing infiltration rate and relucing together and thereby reducing runoff velocity to scour the soil particles screening the eroded particles to reach them into the channels or reservoirs; by dissipating the kinetic energy of falling raindrops and thus reducing the splash erosion. The effect of vegetation on wind erosion is also significant as it directly makes a hinderance in blowing path and thus deflecting the wind current at some distance away towards down stream side. The wind – strip cropping is a well known agronomical practice comployed for controlling the wind erosion in wind erosion susceptible areas.
The role of agronomical measures in achieve of soil & water conservation, has immense importance, perhaps much more than the others. It can be explained by considering the Universal Soil Loss Equation (A = R K L S C P) in which agronomical practices reflect the factor of crop management (C). The other factors such as R & K are the natural factor; we do not have any control on them. The L S and P factors may have value as I under worst conditions; although these can be reduced maximum up to 0.5 by applying an ideal soil and water conservation measures. The factor ‘C’ which is crop management factor has value as I for worst conditions, but it can be reduced up to 0.02. At this small value of C, the soil loss can be minimized up to one – fifteenth which is about 10.25 times more than the other factors. Looking this important effect of agronomical measures on soil loss, its scope is assumed to be more dominating in soil and water conservation programmes.
2. Trip Cropping
3. Tillage Practices
These are the important agronomical practices employed for controlling the soil erosion from sloppy areas. Basically these measures create an obstruction in flow path of surface runoff by making the land surfaces rough due to channels ridges etc. formed under them. Each of these measures also have a direct relation with the infiltration rate and thereby presence of moisture in the soil profile. Infiltration rate is an effective factor in reducing the surface runoff and soil loss.