Ecological Requirement for Wheat Cultivation
A) Climatic Requirement for Wheat Cultivation:
1. Wheat is a temperature crop but widely adapted to varying climate conditions.
2. It needs cool, dry and clear climate for better growth and yield.
3. The optimum temperature range for growth is between 70C to 210C.
4. The rainfall requirement is 750 to 1600 mm/year.
5. Hot and humid climate is harmful because it encourages the infestation of diseases like rust, root rot etc.
6. In early growth stage, it requires cool temperature and dew formation which increases tillering.
7. Very low temperature, cloudy atmosphere and frost during grain filling stage is harmful.
B) Soil Requirement for Wheat Cultivation:
1. Wheat crop is grown in different types of soils ranging from desert soil to heavy clay soil.
2. Well drained, fertile clay loam soils having moderate water holding capacity are ideal for irrigated wheat.
3. Heavy soil with open structure which can retain the monsoon rainfall for longer period is ideal for dry wheat crop.
4. In M.S. black soils (regurs) are most suitable for cultivation of wheat.