Factors Affecting Soil & Water Erosion
Factors Affecting Soil Erosion
Factors such as rainfall, runoff, wind soil, slope, plant cover and presence or absence of conservation measures are responsible for soil erosion. But mainly three following factors affect the erosion.
It include The potential ability of rainfall, runoff and wind to course erosion and other factor which affects the power of erosive agents such as reduction in length of runoff or wind blow through construction of terrace, bunds etc. in case of water erosion and wind breaks or shelter belts incase of wind erosion.
It is referred to that factors which affect soil erodibility and soil erosion. Mechanical and chemical properties of soil are responsible for infiltration rate of soil which reduces runoff and decreases soil erodibility. Cultivation decreases the erodibility of clay but increases erodibility of sandy soils.
[Erodibility—susceptibility of soil to get erosion]
[Erosivity—Ability of rain to cause erosion]
It refers to plant covers which intercept the raindrop falling on ground surface reducing their impact on soil. Plant cover also reduces the runoff and wind velocity, there by soil erosion. Different plant cover offers different protection so suitable cover can be developed to control erosion.
Factors affecting Water Erosion:
Water erosion is due to dispersive and transporting power of water. Factors affecting are:
1. Climatic factors:
This includes rainfall characteristics, atmospheric temperature and wind velocity
2. Soil characteristic:
This affect infiltration rate of soil, Infiltration rate depends upon permeability of soil, surface condition and presence of moisture in it.
It creates the obstacle for raindrops as well as glowing runoff. A good vegetative cover completely reduces the effect of rainfall on soil erosion.
4. Topographic effect:
The land slope, length of slope and shape of slope are main factors which influences soil erosion. As slope of land increases from mild to steep, erosion increases