Faulty Agriculture Practice
Various farming operation improperly carried out lead to adverse effects such as loss of topsoil though water and wing erosion. Due to improper management of irrigation water, stabilization and alkalization of soil takes place. An area of 6 m ha of lands is affected by water logging and another 7 m ha is stalinized due to faulty irrigation practices. Water logging due to inadequate drainage, depletion of ground water due to excessive extraction, pollution of surface and ground water with pesticide and fertilizer residues, loss of biological diversity and erosion of germ plasma resources though removal of natural fauna and flora are the adverse effects of faulty practices.
Alternative land use system: Crop production in dry land is gamble with monsoon in most of water shed situation substantial. Percentage of land is found to be degraded thus resulting in poor productivity. Of late, due to population explosion, more and more marginal and sub marginal lands are being brought under cultivation. Apart from being uneconomical in the long run, cultivation of such land can lead to serious imbalance of ecosystem. Therefore, for such lands an efficient land use system would be more appropriate. In addition to this day by day demand for food, fodder, and fuel increasing can fulfill such demands. According to national remote sensing agency, cultivable wastelands in India occupy 38.8 million hectare. Income from dry land could be increased though alternate land use system is applicable to all classes of land of land to generate assured income with minimum risk through can be practiced and beyond that arable farming is considered as a risky proposition. Suitable farming system as per land capability class is proposed as follows:
1. Food class- II and III- Alley cropping, Agri- horticulture, inter- cropping with nitrogen fixing trees.
2. Fodder- class IV and V- Horti- pasture, silvi- pasture, Ley farming, pasture management.
ley farming or ley rotation is one of the alternate land use systems aimed to increase the food and fodder production and to enhance soil fertility concurrently, in this system, grasses and or legumes are grown in rotation with arable crops. The objective of the system is tonnage production of fodder and enhancing soil fertility. Ley farming is more productive as well as sustainable against climate economic risk than than cropping alone. Considerable amount of organic matter is added through roots and above ground biomass and legumes. There is reduction in weds, pest and disease since ley provides a break in the crop sequence. Yield of grain and Stover of sorghum increased when it is after four years of continuous cultivation of stylosanthes hamata.
Food crops are grown in alley formed by hedgerows of trees or shrubs in arable lands. it is also known as hedgerow intercropping. Among them, forage alley cropping is recommended as an alternate land use system for semi- arid region with main benefit of green fodder production during dry season.
Alley cropping is an agro- forestry system in which fast growing N- fixing shrubs are planted as hedgerows. Food crops are grown in alleys formed by hedge of trees and shrubs. This system is most suitable for marginal and sub- marginal lands.
The essential feature of this is that hedge rows are cut back at about one meter height at panting and kept pruned during cropping to prevent shading and to reduce competition with field crops. In semiarid region, alley cropping provide fodder during dry period since mulching the crop with hedge row pruning usually do not contribute to increase crop production.
Advantages of this System are as Follows:
1. Provision of green fodder during lean period of the year.
2. Higher biomass production per unit area then aerable year.
3. Efficient use of off- season rainfall in the absence of the crop.
4. Additional employment during off- season.
5. it serves as a barrier to surface runoff leding to soil and water.
6. Conservation based on objectives following three types of alley.
7. It improves soil fertility and is more remunerative under rain fed condition.
8. System is recognized:
a) Forage alley cropping.
b) Forage cum mulch system
c) Forage cum pole system.
a. Forage Alley Cropping:
In this system both yield of crop and forage assume importance. Leucaena (Subabul), sesbania are recommended for hedgerow. Pigeon pea or casters are suitable for growing in the allies. Crop yields decreases with increase in the row width.
b. Forage Cum Mulch System:
In this system hedgerows are used for both forage and mulch lapping are used for mulching during the crop season.
c. Forage Cum Pole System:
Leucaena alleys are established at 5 meter interval along the contours. Hedge rows are established by direst seeding and topped every two months at 1.0m height during crop season and every four months during the off season. A Leucaena plant at every 2 meter is allowed too grow in to a pole. Crop yields are usually reduced due to competition from hedgerow.