Features of Ideotype Breeding
Ideotype breeding or plant type breeding can be defined as a method of crop improvement which is used to enhance yield potential through genetic manipulation of individual plant characters are chosen in such a way that each character contributes towards increased economic yield. Main features of Ideotype breeding are briefly discussed below:
1. Emphasis on Individual Trait:
In Ideotype breeding, emphasis is given on individual morphological and physiological trait which enhances the yield. The value of each character is specified before initiating the breeding work.
2. Includes Yield Enhancing Traits:
Various plant characters to be included in the Ideotype are identified through correlation analysis. Only those characters which exhibit positive association with yield are included in the model.
3. Exploits Physiological Variation:
Genetic difference exists for various physiological characters such as photosynthetic efficiency. Photo respiration, nutrient uptake, etc. Ideotype breeding makes use of genetically controlled physiological variation in increasing crop yields, besides various agronomic traits.
4. Slow Progress:
Ideotype breeding is a slow method of cultivar development, because incorporation of various desirable characters from different sources into a single genotype takes long time. Moreover, sometimes undesirable linkage affects the progress adversely.
In Ideotype breeding selection is focussed on individual plant character which enhances the yields.
6. Designing of Model:
In Ideotype breeding, the phenotypes of new variety to be developed is specified in terms of morphological and physiological traits in advance.
7. Interdisciplinary Approach:
Ideotype breeding is in true sense an interdisciplinary approach. It involves scientist from the disciplines of genetics, breeding, physiology, pathology, entomology etc.
8. A Continuous Process:
Ideotype breeding is a continuous process, because new Ideotype have to be developed to meet changing and increasing demands. Thus development of Ideotype is a moving target.
Ideotype breeding differs from traditional breeding in the sense that values for individual traits are specified in case of Ideotype breeding, whereas such values are not fixed and then efforts are made to achieve such model. In traditional breeding, such models are not developed before initiation of breeding programmes. There are several differences between traditional breeding and Ideotype breeding.