Fertilizer Use In Rained Farming, Levels And Methods Or Fertilizer Application
One of the important management practices to increase the crop production. In dry lands is the use of fertilizers. Fertilizer is next important component to moisture in dry lands. Therefore, it is said that the soils of dryland are not only thirsty but hungry also. Soils of this zone are generally poor in nitrogen content (Total nitrogen content 0.03 to 0.05%) and they respond to nitrogen application. Available phosphate status is low to medium (10 to 30 kg P2O5/ha.) Response to phosphate application is noticed only during Kharif on sallow soils, which are poor in phosphate. However, there has not response to the phosphate on medium deep and deep soils (rabi soils). The reason may be that these soils are medium in phosphate and the drop requirements like jawar (M – 35 – 1) are not very high. Potash content of the soils are quite high (300 to 750 kg available K2O/ha) than usually required for dry land crops. Potash is abundant and it would be difficult to expect any response to dry crops due to application of potash.
Experiment ants on use of inorganic fertilizers are in progress since 1957 at Solapur and other locations. The fertilizer use has done much progress in dry lands.
1. Bajra: Bajra is an important Kharif crop. During last 15 to 20 years hybrid varieties are becoming popular in dryland areas. Bajra crop responded to nitrogen application very well. Response to P2O5 was very small. On shallow and malin help, there is likely to get reapions P2O5.It is recommended to apply 50 kg N + 25 kg P2O5/ ha. The whole does of N & P should be applied at sowing. There is no interaction between N and P. If money is short P2O5 application may be deleted.
2. Setaria: Setaria is a Kharif crop in dry lands for shallow and medium deep soils. It is particularly suited under delayed sowing conditions. From the results of experiments on Setaria it is observed that nitrogen application helped to increase production significantly and substantially. In case of P2O5 the response was very small. It is therefore, recommended to apply 50 kgN to Setaria crop at sowing.
3. Rabi Jowar : Rabi Jowar is the most important and major crop of the region. Earlier work on the fertilizer requirement revealed that there was only response to nitrogen application and as such 25 kg N for medium deep soils and 50 kg N for deep about 7 to 8 kg. The experiments were conducted to see the efficiency of fertilizer by applying part of nitrogen by foliar sprays. But in this experiment it was observed that foliar application and no advantage over soil application. With the use of new dry farming technology such as high yielding varieties and early September sowing, experiment on nitrogen requirements was started during 1973 – 74. The results of this experiment showed that in early sowing, the nitrogen utilization was proper which resulted in better response to the fertilizer. As high as 17 kg. grain and 36 kg. Fodder is prepuce per kg. of nitrogen applied. The optimum level of nitro in for different varieties tried was around 85 kg/in
Effect of despite application on rabi Jowar:
Studies of varieties conducted on the phosphate requirement of Rabi Jowar (M – 35 – 1) and it was observed that the phosphate application did not affect the grain production. Lack of response to phosphate may be attributed to two reasons. Firsts the soils on which the crop was grown contained medium level of phosphate (20 kg P2O5/ha). Secondly the requirement of the phosphate for M – 35 – 1 variety may be very low which might be supplied through native phosphate alone. On an average, M – 35 – 1 removes 25 to 28 kg P2O5/ha.
Safflower: Safflower is another important rabi crop in dry farming zone. It is, usually taken as mix crop. Studies at Solapur proved that mixing safflower along with jawar is harmiture. As a result, it has been recommended to cultivate this crop at a sole crop. This crop was found to respond extremely well to nitrogen application. Response to phosphate is small, erratic and noticed only in shallow soils in some years. Response to nitrogen is very good under good soil moisture conditions. Application of 50 kg N/ha is sufficient to get good and economic returns.