Forestry – Definition and Types of Forestry
Forestry is defined as the theory and practice of all that constitutes the creation, conservation and scientific management of forests and the utilization of their resources (Anon, 1966). It includes all thinking and all actions pertaining to creation and management of forests, including harvesting, marketing and utilization of all forest products and services. It includes not only management of existing forests but also the creation of new forests.
National Forest Policy of 1952, recommended that on the basis of Functions, all forest lands may be classified into:
A. Protection Forests
B. National Forests
C. Village Forests
C. Tree Lands
National Commission of Agriculture (1976) proposed that forests can be classified into:
A. Protection Forests:
The practices of managing the forests for their protection function are called Protection forestry. In protection forestry, the object is to protect the site due to instability of terrain, nature of soil, geological formations, etc. Such areas where manipulation of the forest cover is not desirable may be classed as protection forests. The forests located on higher hill slopes, national parks and sanctuaries, preservation plots, biosphere or nature reserves and wilderness areas may be included under protection forests. The practice of forestry with a view to conserving flora, fauna, soil and water, increasing water yields, reducing floods and droughts, amelioration of climatic conditions, etc. is called Protection Forestry.
B. Production Forests:
The practice of forestry with object of producing maximum quantity of timber, fuel wood and other forest produce is called Production Forestry. The production forestry can be further classified into:
(i) Commercial Forestry: Commercial forestry aims to get maximum production of timber, fuel wood and other forest products as a business enterprise.
(ii) Industrial Forestry: Industrial forestry aims at producing raw material required for industry. In Production forestry, there is a greater concern for the production and economic returns.
(iii) Mixed Quality Forests
(iv) Valuable Forests
(v) Inaccessible Forests
C. Social Forests: Social Forestry is the practice of forestry which aims at meeting the requirement of rural and urban population. The object of social forestry is to meet the basic needs of community aiming at bettering the conditions of living through:
(i) Meeting the fuel wood, fodder and small timber requirements
(ii) Protection of agricultural fields against wind
(iii) Meeting recreational needs and
(iv) Maximizing production and increasing farm returns
Various forms of Social forestry are:
a) Community Forestry: The practice of forestry on lands outside the conventional forest area for the benefit of local population has been called Community forestry. Community forestry seeks the involvement of community in the creation and management of such forests.
b) Farm Forestry: Farm Forestry is defined as the practice of forestry in all its aspect on farms of village lands generally integrated with other farm operations.
c)Extension Forestry: Extension forestry which includes the activity of raising trees on farm lands, villages wastelands and community forest areas and on lands along the sides of roads, canal banks and railway lines (Anon., 1976). More recently, there has been emphasis on dynamic land use planning and efforts are made to maximise production on farmlands under agroforestry.
d) Agro-Forestry: Agro-forestry has been defined as a sustainable land management system which increases the yield of the land, combines the production of crops and forest plants and/or animals simultaneously or sequentially on the same unit of land and applies management practices that are compatible with the cultural practices of the local population.
e) Recreational Forestry: More recently, there has been considerable demand for Recreational forestry, which is defined as the practice of forestry with the object of developing and maintaining forests of high scenic value. Recreational forests are being developed near towns and cities. The areas are being planted with flowering trees, shrubs and creepers to provide forest atmosphere near towns and cities.