Four Paradigms of Agricultural Extension

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Four Paradigms of Agricultural Extension

Any particular system can be described both in terms of both how communication takes place any why it takes place. It is not the case that paternalistic systems are always persuasive, nor is it case that participatory projects are necessary educational. Instead there are four possible combinations, each of which represents a different extension paradigm. As fallows:

1.  Technology Transfer (Persuasive+ Paternalistic):

This paradigm was prevalent in colonial times, and reappeared in the 1970’s when the Training and Visit system was established across Asia. Technology transfer involves a top –town approach that delivers specific recommendations to farmers about the practices they should adopt.

2.  Advisory Work (persuasive + participatory):

This paradigm can be seen today where government organizations or private consulting companies responds to farmers enquiries with technical prescriptions. It also takes the form of projects managed by donor agencies and NGOs those
participatory approaches to promote pre-determined packages of technology.

3.  Human Resource Development (Educational + paternalistic):

The paradigm dominated the earliest days of extension in Europe and North America. When universities gave training to rural people who were too poor to attend full time course. It continues today in the outreach activities of colleges around the world. Top-town teaching methods are employed, but students are expected to make their own decisions about how to use the knowledge they acquire.

4.  Facilitation For Empowerment (Educational +Participatory):


This paradigm involves methods such as experimental learning and farmer-to-farmer exchanges. Knowledge is gained through interactive processes and the participants are encouraged to make their own decisions. The best know examples in Asia projects that use Farmer Field School (FFS) or participatory technology development (PTD).
That means the provisions of information to farmers on agricultural production technologies designed to increase production protect natural resources and the environment, or achieve some other objective.

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