Historical Developments in Biological Control – Middle History to 1962

Historical Developments in Biological Control – Middle History to 1962

In 1874, a German Chemist Othman Zeidler synthesized DDT and later in 1939 Paul Muller in Swiss discovered its remarkable insecticide properties. Thus during 1940-1960 insect control was totally dependent upon use of chemicals. In 1950 use of BT resume interest in Europe and America and significance of Bt resulted its commercial production in 1960. There, was increasing emphasis on use of microbes and other methods of pest control like chemical, physical, and cultural for greater effectiveness.

In 1952, another significant development was the establishment of International Commission of Biological Control (ICBC) under the auspices of International Union of biological Scientists. ICBC was later recognized as IOBC (International Organization for Biological Control) comparing of 22 members from 16 Countries. The group was designed to promote and co-ordinate the national efforts in biological pest suppression by international cooperation within its jurisdiction. This organization began a publication of a Journal “Entomophaga”.

In Canada, F. T. Bird carried out studies and accidentally introduced polyhedral viral species and it was the beginning of a period of applied Insect Pathology By 1950, a well equipped insect pathology laboratory was established in Sault SteMarie concerning with disease of forest pest and another group in Dominion Research Laboratory at Belleville was concern with agricultural pest.

During 1940-50 work on biological control was mostly restricted in USDA, California and Hawaii. Largest effort was made for biological control of oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis and obtained substantial control. In 1955, Dominion laboratory Belleville had become one of the largest centers for research on application of principles of genetics for mass production of parasitoids in the world with the name Entomological Research Institute of Biological Control. The CIBC has headquartered at Belleville during 1940-46 at Ottawa during 1946-61. From 1961 onwards the headquarter of CIBC was moved to Trinidad, West Indies and is continued until now. In 1959, a growing interest in Insect disease gave impetuous to the publication of Journal of ‘Insect Pathology’ in New York which has been changed to Journal of ‘Invertebrate Pathology’.

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